Times Are Changing. From Revolution to Global War. The Industrial Revolution (1 st ). The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain around 1780. Had a supply of capital , wealthy entrepreneurs were looking for new places to invest their money and make a profit.
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain around 1780.
Had a supply of capital, wealthy entrepreneurs were looking for new places to invest their money and make a profit.
Had a good supply of natural resourcesand good access to world markets.
People were making textiles in their homes, these were called cottage industries .
New inventions like the spinning jenny and the flying shuttle made textile production faster and factories replaced the home production.
The new technology was powered by running water, so textile factories were built next to the rivers.
Mills no longer had to be located next to a river
Mills began to pop up all over England
Iron production becomes very important because iron is needed to build steam engines
With MORE factories, came MORE things to move, in MORE places # of Railroads increased
Factories left more opportunities other than farming
People moved into cities
Bye, Bye Farms
The Industrial Revolution comes to the US in the first half of the 1800’s.
Required more railroads & canals
In 1830 the U.S. had about 100 miles of RR tracks
By 1860 there were 30,000 miles of tracks
By 1890 there were 200,000 miles of tracks
1st Industrial Revolution
Textiles, railroads, iron, and coal
2nd Industrial Revolution
Steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum
Mechanical Reaper – Cyrus McCormick (1830s) harvest crops five times faster
Telegraph – Samuel Morse (1837) send signals through copper wire (1st Trans-Atlantic telegraph 1901)
Vulcanized Rubber – Charles Goodyear (1839) more durable; wouldn’t melt in summer or freeze in winter
Sewing Machine – Elias Howe/I.M. Singer (1846) reduced time to sew garments (especially shoes)
Bessemer Process (1850): previously used iron (too soft; breaks and rusts); remove carbon by injecting air into molten iron to make steel
Typewriter (1867): Christopher Sholes – increased efficiency in offices
Telephone (1876): Alexander Graham Bell – opened worldwide telecommunications
Light Bulb (1880): Thomas Edison – incandescent light bulb; harnessing electricity caused factories to boom
December 17, 1903 – Orville and Wilbur Wright (bicycle shop owners) of Ohio move to Kitty Hawk, NC (due to windy conditions) to test gliders; end up with 1st successful motorized, manned aircraft flight.
1st flight – Orville: 120 ft. 12 seconds
2nd flight – Wilbur: 852 ft. 59 seconds
Changed national and international travel forever.
Owners wanted machines to run constantly (thanks to light bulbs), so employees forced to workin shifts.
Long hours, dangerous and repetitive tasks.
Workers fined for being late and dismissed for serious misconduct.
Child laborers were often beaten or killed in factory.
1901 he created Ford Motor Co. He wanted to figure out a way to sell a lot of cars and make them affordable. To increase productivity he became more efficient by:
Dividing his labor force (Division of Labor)
Use Specialization of Labor (learn a specific task)
Led to Mass Production (Assembly Line with interchangeable parts)
Human Capital – take care of workers
High Wages (Minimum wage in his factory $5 per day)
Mass Production begins to appear in all factories – They strive to become more efficient using mechanization and technology
Government intervention and labor unions develop because of poor working conditions and business monopolies
Child Labor outlawed
Between 1800-1900, the population of London grew from 960,000 to 6.5 million (just one of many cities)
How do you handle this many new people?
Reformers begged local governments to do something about the horrible conditions
Boards were created to improve health and housing conditions
Regulations began on buildings, internal plumbing, sewage systems, etc.
Now people were able to live and survive close together
The New Elite
5% who controlled 40% of the wealth
The Middle Classes
Lawyers, doctors, businessmen, shop owners, etc.
The Working Classes
80% of the population
New forms of leisure began to appear:
Organized team sports
Work and leisure were now separated
Leisure is considered after work, evenings, and weekends
Leisure was more passive
Watching sports, riding rides
Leisure required money
Education used to be reserved for the elite, but now pushed for more of the population
Reasons for education:
-The newer technology needed workers who were educated in
order to work them
-Schooling promoted patriotism
-With more people who could vote, they wanted educated
-Other countries had very few literate people, providing an
Teachers were considered to be the natural role for women
More factories needed more workers, women could be paid less, and more vulnerable
Government services needed clerks, secretaries, telephone operators, etc.
Feminism-the movement for women’s rights
Began with the Enlightenment
Argued for the right for women to own property and divorce
Believed that suffrage, the right to vote, was the key to improve their position
The market began opening up across the globe
Imperialism-the extension of a nation’s power over other lands
European countries needed more places to sell their products and gain more raw materials to make more
Taken from Darwin’s idea of natural selection
Philosopher Herbert Spencer coins the phrase, “survival of the fittest”
-the strong advance while the weak decline
Racism-the belief that race determines traits and capabilities
-the idea that races are superior or inferior
Tensions spread everywhere, creating conflict across the globe