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Times Are Changing. From Revolution to Global War. The Industrial Revolution (1 st ). The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain around 1780. Had a supply of capital , wealthy entrepreneurs were looking for new places to invest their money and make a profit.

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from revolution to global war

Times Are Changing

FromRevolutiontoGlobal War

the industrial revolution 1 st
The Industrial Revolution (1st)

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain around 1780.

Had a supply of capital, wealthy entrepreneurs were looking for new places to invest their money and make a profit.

Had a good supply of natural resourcesand good access to world markets.

Why Britain?

timeline of technology
Timeline of Technology

People were making textiles in their homes, these were called cottage industries .

New inventions like the spinning jenny and the flying shuttle made textile production faster and factories replaced the home production.

The new technology was powered by running water, so textile factories were built next to the rivers.

the steam engine
The Steam Engine

Mills no longer had to be located next to a river

Mills began to pop up all over England

Iron production becomes very important because iron is needed to build steam engines

moving on
Moving On

With MORE factories, came MORE things to move, in MORE places # of Railroads increased

Factories left more opportunities other than farming

People moved into cities

Bye, Bye Farms

Industrialization Spread!

slide6

The Industrial Revolution comes to the US in the first half of the 1800’s.

  • In 1800, 6 out of 7 workers were farmers
  • By 1860 that number drops to 1 out of 4
  • In the same time period U.S.’s population grows from 5 million to 50 million
the u s s larger land area and population
The U.S.’s larger land area and population

Required more railroads & canals

In 1830 the U.S. had about 100 miles of RR tracks

By 1860 there were 30,000 miles of tracks

By 1890 there were 200,000 miles of tracks

1 st vs 2 nd industrial revolution
1st vs. 2nd Industrial Revolution

1st Industrial Revolution

Textiles, railroads, iron, and coal

2nd Industrial Revolution

Steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum

industrial expansion
Industrial Expansion

Mechanical Reaper – Cyrus McCormick (1830s) harvest crops five times faster

Telegraph – Samuel Morse (1837) send signals through copper wire (1st Trans-Atlantic telegraph 1901)

Vulcanized Rubber – Charles Goodyear (1839) more durable; wouldn’t melt in summer or freeze in winter

Sewing Machine – Elias Howe/I.M. Singer (1846) reduced time to sew garments (especially shoes)

industrial expansion1
Industrial Expansion

Bessemer Process (1850): previously used iron (too soft; breaks and rusts); remove carbon by injecting air into molten iron to make steel

Typewriter (1867): Christopher Sholes – increased efficiency in offices

Telephone (1876): Alexander Graham Bell – opened worldwide telecommunications

Light Bulb (1880): Thomas Edison – incandescent light bulb; harnessing electricity caused factories to boom

wright brothers
Wright Brothers

December 17, 1903 – Orville and Wilbur Wright (bicycle shop owners) of Ohio move to Kitty Hawk, NC (due to windy conditions) to test gliders; end up with 1st successful motorized, manned aircraft flight.

1st flight – Orville: 120 ft. 12 seconds

2nd flight – Wilbur: 852 ft. 59 seconds

Changed national and international travel forever.

the new factories
The New Factories

Owners wanted machines to run constantly (thanks to light bulbs), so employees forced to workin shifts.

Long hours, dangerous and repetitive tasks.

Workers fined for being late and dismissed for serious misconduct.

Child laborers were often beaten or killed in factory.

henry ford
Henry Ford

1901 he created Ford Motor Co. He wanted to figure out a way to sell a lot of cars and make them affordable. To increase productivity he became more efficient by:

Dividing his labor force (Division of Labor)

Use Specialization of Labor (learn a specific task)

Led to Mass Production (Assembly Line with interchangeable parts)

Human Capital – take care of workers

High Wages (Minimum wage in his factory $5 per day)

Fringe Benefits

i love lucy clip
I Love Lucy Clip

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YGF5R9i53A

effects
Effects

Mass Production begins to appear in all factories – They strive to become more efficient using mechanization and technology

Government intervention and labor unions develop because of poor working conditions and business monopolies

Child Labor outlawed

reaction to urban growth
Reaction to Urban Growth

Between 1800-1900, the population of London grew from 960,000 to 6.5 million (just one of many cities)

How do you handle this many new people?

slide18
Science had proven that disease comes from filth

Reformers begged local governments to do something about the horrible conditions

Boards were created to improve health and housing conditions

Regulations began on buildings, internal plumbing, sewage systems, etc.

Now people were able to live and survive close together

social structure
Social Structure

The New Elite

5% who controlled 40% of the wealth

The Middle Classes

Lawyers, doctors, businessmen, shop owners, etc.

The Working Classes

80% of the population

leisure is redefined
Leisure is redefined

New forms of leisure began to appear:

Amusement parks

Dance halls

Organized team sports

Work and leisure were now separated

Leisure is considered after work, evenings, and weekends

Leisure was more passive

Watching sports, riding rides

Leisure required money

public education
Public Education

Education used to be reserved for the elite, but now pushed for more of the population

Reasons for education:

-The newer technology needed workers who were educated in

order to work them

-Schooling promoted patriotism

-With more people who could vote, they wanted educated

voters

-Other countries had very few literate people, providing an

advantage

more schools more teachers
More schools, more teachers

Teachers were considered to be the natural role for women

More factories needed more workers, women could be paid less, and more vulnerable

Government services needed clerks, secretaries, telephone operators, etc.

women want rights
Women want rights

Feminism-the movement for women’s rights

Began with the Enlightenment

Argued for the right for women to own property and divorce

Believed that suffrage, the right to vote, was the key to improve their position

who has the right
Who has the right?

The market began opening up across the globe

Imperialism-the extension of a nation’s power over other lands

European countries needed more places to sell their products and gain more raw materials to make more

social darwinism
Social Darwinism

Taken from Darwin’s idea of natural selection

Philosopher Herbert Spencer coins the phrase, “survival of the fittest”

-the strong advance while the weak decline

imperialism leads to racism
Imperialism leads to Racism

Racism-the belief that race determines traits and capabilities

-the idea that races are superior or inferior

Tensions spread everywhere, creating conflict across the globe