Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

chapter 7 the early baroque period n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period

play fullscreen
1 / 16
Download Presentation
Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period
513 Views
Download Presentation

Chapter 7 The Early Baroque Period

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 7The Early Baroque Period The Rise of Instrumental Music

  2. Dance Stylized dances Suites Movements Virtuosity Fugue Variations Registrations Toccata Canzona Balletto Corrente Passacaglia Chromaticism Key Terms

  3. The Rise of Instrumental Music • Vocal music was Renaissance ideal— instrumental music lagged behind • Though it didn’t catch up with opera, instrumental music became much more important in Baroque era • Many new instrumental genres created • Three sources of inspiration for instrumental composers • Dance, virtuosity, & vocal music

  4. Dance • Dance had always been popular • Ballet was an integral part of new genres such as opera, especially in France • Dances from popular operas were compiled in dance suites for orchestra • Composers also wrote dances (often stylized) & suites for lute, harpsichord, & chamber ensembles • The rhythms of favorite dances came to permeate all genres, even church music

  5. Virtuosity • Virtuoso instrumentalists always existed • Due to low status of instrumental music: • They improvised their music (played by ear) • Their music was rarely written down • In late Renaissance and early Baroque, composers began to write it down • Written works did not capture complexity of virtuoso improvisation • Performers came to use written music as a guide for (often ornate) improvisation

  6. Vocal Music • Baroque vocal music abandoned vocal ensemble music in favor of solo singers • Imitative polyphony of older motets & madrigals moved to instrumental medium • Imitative instrumental genres were written mostly for keyboard (organ & harpsichord) • Often associated with church music • Fugue is the most famous genre to emerge from these practices

  7. Vocal Music (2) • Vocal music also provided a large body of well-known tunes, sacred and secular • Instrumental performers would often improvise on these tunes • Instrumental composers began to write sets of variations on these tunes

  8. Girolamo Frescobaldi(1583-1643) • Leading organ virtuoso of early Baroque • Worked in Florence & Rome (at St. Peter’s) • Famous performer, composer, & teacher • Known for expressiveness & extravagance of his improvising & his compositions • His favored genres included: • Toccatas, canzonas, stylized dances & suites, and sets of variations on vocal melodies

  9. St Peter’s in Rome

  10. Some Instrumental Works • Toccatas— • Free-form pieces that capture the spirit of improvised performances • Canzonas— • Rigorously organized works emphasizing imitative texture–ancestor of the fugue • Stylized dances— • Short binary form works, often in suites • Sets of variations • Based on vocal melodies or harmonic patterns

  11. Frescobaldi, Suite (1a) • Canzona— • An imitative keyboard work modeled after Renaissance chanson. • First section uses a single motive imitatively

  12. Frescobaldi, Suite (1b) • Canzona (cont.)— • The second, contrasting section introduces a new motive for imitation • Sections tend to end with strong cadences

  13. Frescobaldi, Suite (2) • Balletto and Corrente— • Pairing slower and faster dances was a common practice (cf. pavane & galliard) • Both dances use binary form, homophonic texture, same key, & very similar bass lines • In other respects the dances differ–good examples of “inner” vs. “outer” form • Balletto uses duple meter, slow tempo • Corrente uses triple meter, faster tempo

  14. Frescobaldi, Suite (3a) • Passacaglia— • A set of variations on a brief series of chords (and their accompanying bass line) • Originated in Spain as an improvised bridge between verses of a song • Frescobaldi may have been the first to turn it into a variation form • Similar to ground bass works, but the bass line is repeated less strictly

  15. Frescobaldi, Suite (3b) • Frescobaldi’s Passacaglia • Based on a four-measure harmonic pattern that ends (inconclusively) on the dominant • At times he inverts or omits the ground bass • Eighteen variations over this simple pattern • Frescobaldi creates endless variety through changing rhythms and chromaticism • In a surprise move, the last five variations are more sober, switching to minor mode