THE RISE OF RUSSIA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  2. GEOGRAPHY OF RUSSIA • Lies across Eurasian Plain • Borders Europe and China • Ural Mts. Boundary between Europe and Asia • North –Forests-lumber, fuel • Hunters – fur-cold icy climate • Border of North-(part of Ukraine) home to Russia’s 1st civilization • Steppe-South –treeless grassland-pasture, nomads

  3. RIVERS OF RUSSIA • Rivers run north to south • Transportation • Trade • Linked early Russia to advanced Byzantine Empire

  4. KIEV and MONGOLS • Center of 1st Russian State • Golden Horde – Mongols take Kiev • Fierce conquers – conquered ruled their lands if tax was paid • Russians learn absolute power concept • Russia cut off from Western Europe • Lost advancements in arts and sciences

  5. MOSCOW • Mongol Power declines • Russian Princes defeat Golden Horde • Ivan III, The Great, 1462-1505 • Brings Northern Russia under his control • Regains Russian territory lost during Mongol Rule • Builds framework for absolute rule – refers to himself as tsar • In power he is like highest God


  7. IVAN THE TERRIBLE First ruler crowned Czar Centralized Royal power-limited power of Boyars Granted land to nobles in exchange for service in military To control those he feared going against him he used his “police” force – Oprichniki –Dressed in black and slaughtered rebellious boyars Harsh rule & control gains title Ivan the Terrible Sets stage for absolute power in Russian History

  8. Ivan The Terrible • Acquired vast amounts of land • Gains Siberia • Created centrally controlled Russian state • Controlled by the military • Took lands from boyars & gave to his supporters • Threatens to abdicate throne • Comes back and has control of all regions surrounding Moscow • Has authority to punish traitors with execution & taking property • Reign of Terror lasting 24 years

  9. ABSOLUTE MONARCHY IN RUSSIA • Mikhail 1st czar of Romanov Dynasty • Romanovs were in power from 1613 -1917 pulling Russia out of the Times of Trouble from Ivan the Great • Peter the Great regained absolute power of the czars • Spent time in the West – Germany-learned of technology European monarchs used to maintain power empires • He Westernized Russia – became most autocratic monarch of the time • All institutions were under his control • Controlled Russian Orthodox Church • Boyars forced to serve in civilian or military positions

  10. PETER THE GREAT MODERNIZES • All Boyars/men forced to shave beards • Forced to dress in western styles • Ended separation of men and women in public • Nobles allowed to control their lands including the serfs • This ensured their support • Strengthened Serfdom • Serfs forced to be soldiers or work for the state

  11. PETER THE GREAT MODERNIZES Modernized through force Imported Western technology Improved education Simplified Russian alphabet Set academies for math, science & engineering Enforced Trade – mercantilism Improved water ways & canals to improve trade Developed mining & textile manufacturing Those who opposed were tortured & executed

  12. PETER EXPANDS RUSSIA’S BORDERS • Creates largest standing army in Europe • Built world-class Navy himself • Needed warm water port for trade • Did gain ports in Baltic Sea by conquering Sweden • On that land built St.Petersburg his window to the West • Expanded to East to China • Ended Russia’s isolation • Peter’s policies with serfs widened the gap with the West

  13. CATHERINE THE GREAT • With support of military Catherine ascended the throne • Reorganized the government • Codified the laws • State sponsored education for girls and boys • Embraced Western ideas • Focused on political & social life • Led the Enlightenment in Russia • Gave powers back to boyars • Tough on peasants – more into serfdom • Conquered Poland, no one else could do that

  14. REFORM IN RUSSIA Russia largest & most populous nation in Europe Empire part European and Asian Most Russians were serfs or laborers bound to land and landowners who controlled them Russia’s economy remains backward Defeated in Crimean War-need for change Serfs freed by Alexander II-Strain on Russia both economically & Socially Reform & Rebellion is preached to peasants Power of secret police is restored – offenders exiled to Siberia Russification is enforced -

  15. DRIVE TO INDUSTRIALIZE Nicholas II industrializes –Railroads, iron & coal mines, factories Links European Russia to Pacific Ocean with Trans-Siberian RR-peasants overworked Russia’s defeat in Russo-Japanese War creates problems with the people –distrust Workers with philosophy of Marx protest for shorter hrs. and higher wages Tsar orders Military to end protest Bloody Sunday- Protesters shot –end of trust in the Tsar

  16. NICHOLAS II • After Bloody Sunday riots continue • Nicholas II forced to make changes • Duma created –national legislature –to approve all laws • Nicholas blocks attempts to block his authority-reforms too late • WWI – worsens conditions – Nicholas II goes to front to fight • Rasputin –Czarina relies on him to aid in the rule of Russia • Conditions worsen for Russians • Nicholas II forced to abdicate the throne