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The rise of Russia

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  1. The rise of Russia Chapter 18 Review

  2. Big Things • The effects of Mongol occupation • Expansion and elimination of Asian nomad threat • Development of absolutism • Westernization and identity issues • Economic weakness • Serfdom • Social unrest and repression • The Four Esses: Soot, Sorrow, Snow, Stolichnaya

  3. A “Quick”-ish Narrative • Ivan III rejects Mongol tribute • Revival of Russian identity (Rurik) • Desire to be the Third Rome: Hence “Tsar” • Expansion: self-defense • Diplomats sent to Western states • Ivan IV • Troubled youth (bad boyars!) • Continued expansion; recruit first Cossacks • Establishes ties with British merchants • Italians “imported” for buildings and art • Wrath at Boyar Conspiracy • Kills own son (& only heir)

  4. …Continued… • Time of Troubles • No heir for Ivan • Boyar resurgence, new political conflict • Polish and Swedish invasions • Help me, Mikhail Romanov (you’re my only hope) • Michael Romanov • Pacifies Boyars • Drives out invaders • Pushes to Ottoman borders • Alexis Romanov • Abolishes assemblies of nobles • Gains new powers over church • Religious reforms; row with “Old Believers”

  5. …continued… • Peter I (The Great) • Huge, energetic, intelligent, determined, cruel • Traveled throughout the West • Brought observations and artisans back • Created new nobles to secure loyalty • ^Weakened landed aristocracy • Reformed military (weapons and organization) • Established secret police • Expansion: Stalemate against the Ottomans • Expansion: Conquered Swedish territory; access to Baltic • Built St. Petersburg; moved capital (symbolic?) • Training institutes for bureaucratic and military posts • Economic reform: metallurgy/Iron • Economic reform: rewards for using serfs for manufacturing • Cultural reform: No more marriage whip • Cultural reform: Western-style clothing


  6. …Continued… • Peter I cont. • Cultural reform: no beard for you. • Other evidence of Westernization: Ballet, Christmas trees • BUT a very selective Westernization • A Few Rough Decades • What if the Tsar has absolute power but is weak and ineffectual? • Further expansion into Siberia • Peter III (the I’s Grandson) • Not retarded—political apocrypha • Perhaps more of a reformer…

  7. …Continued… • Catherine II (The Great) • German-born • Possibly had Peter III assassinated • An Enlightened Monarch? (serfs, censorship, tyranny…) • Pugachev’s Rebellion • “Instruction of 1767”—selective Westernization (p. 397) • Arts, sciences, legal reforms • Gave nobles power over serfs—Why? • The Radishev problem • Expansion: Crimea from Ottomans • Expansion: All the way to Alaska • Expansion: Partition of Poland—A European power-player • She eventually died.

  8. Demography • Multinational Empire • Slavs of many kind • Muslims • Other Asians • Rural and Poor

  9. Migrations and Patterns of Settlement

  10. New Technologies • Um…

  11. Religion • Russian Orthodox • Islam • Catholicism (conquered Poland)

  12. Politics • Rise of absolutism • Diminished Boyars • No Popular Sovereignty

  13. Economics • Archaic agriculture • Limited manufacturing • Cash poor • A few super wealthy • Majority poor serfs; no commercial class

  14. Major Themes • Big changes from 1450-1750 • Massive expansion • Rise of Tsarist power • But limited “Westernization

  15. Doubters Gotta Doubt, But… • Russian Territory at the Start of this Area of Study

  16. Blammo! Check This Out • Russian Territory at the End of this Area of Study About where we started

  17. Major Themes • Significant continuities too • Serfdom and oppression • Trade and economic weakness • Consequence: Social unrest

  18. What do you See? Mongol siege of Kiev

  19. What do you See? Ivan III declines to pay tribute

  20. What do you See? Ivan III tears up letter from the Khan

  21. What do you See? Ivan III

  22. What do you See? Ivan IV

  23. What do you See? Child abuse: Ivan IV cradles his dead son

  24. What do you See? Michael Romanov

  25. What do you See? Peter the Great

  26. What do you See? Peter the Great

  27. What Do You See? Peeta the Great

  28. What do you See? Cossacks conquering Siberia

  29. What do you See? Cossack

  30. What do you See? Don Cossack

  31. What do you See? Repin Cossacks

  32. What do you See? Cossack Officer, 1720

  33. What do you See? Catherine the Great

  34. What do you See? Catherine the Great

  35. What do you See? Russian serfs singing (compare to U.S. slaves)

  36. What do you See? Russian serfs greeting a noble

  37. What do you See? Serf field work

  38. What do you See? Pugachev

  39. What do you See? Pugachev administering justice

  40. What do you See? The Kremlin, Moscow

  41. What do you See? Winter Palace, St. Petersburg

  42. What do you See? Red Square, Moscow

  43. What do you See? St. Basil’s Moscow

  44. What do you See? Catherine Palace, St. Petersburg

  45. What do you See? Bolshoi Theater, Moscow