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Who „suffers” from PR ?. Dr Maciej Ulita ( Fraser P. Seitel , Public Relations w praktyce, Warszawa 2003.) . Public opinion. Best PR campaign will not built trust when reality destroys it. Reality limits possible PR successes!. Public opinion is a n elusive and delicate good,

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who suffers from pr

Who „suffers” from PR?

Dr Maciej Ulita

(Fraser P. Seitel, Public Relations w praktyce, Warszawa 2003.)

public opinion
Public opinion

Best PR campaign will not built trust when reality destroys it. Reality limits possible PR successes!

  • Public opinion is an elusive and delicate good,
  • Chester Burger who started one of the best PR agencies once said:
likes and dislikes
Likes and dislikes
  • Both earned similar amount of money,
  • They are totally different,
  • Both are extremely recogizable,
  • One has possitive image,
  • While the other rather not…
  • Both are succesful…
public opinion5
Public opinion
  • That’s peculiarity of public opinion dominated by fame,
  • Most often it is hard to push people towards strong and radical opinion,
  • Even harder is to change opinions they have,
  • Some say, that even mass media has very little effect on public opinion…
  • So
  • What PR are willing to do?
pr vs public opinon
PR Vs PUBLIC OPINON
  • Main task of PR is to influence on the public opinion…
  • Most of PR programs/projects are to:
  • Make people change their opinion concerning certain product, service or organization,
  • Solidify uninformed or undecided opinions,
  • Strengthen existing opinions
what pr needs
What PR needs?
  • PR specialists must understand in what way public opinion sets up,
  • How it arises from people attitude toward various things,
  • And what influence communication has upon it
what public opinion is
What PUBLIC OPINION is?
  • Public opinion as PR escapes definitions,
  • Josepf Kraft (journalist) said:

„Unknown God to pries whom incenses are burnt”

  • Edward Bernays(an American pioneer in the field of public relations and propaganda) said:

„…is a term describing badly defined, hesitant and changing group of individual opinions”

what public opinion is9
What PUBLIC OPINION is?
  • Princeton University Professor – HARWOOD CHILDES took 40 various but possible definitions and attheendsummed his researches with one by Herman C. Boyle:

„Public opinion is not a name of a certain thing, but a classification of SOME things”

what public opinion is10
What PUBLIC OPINION is?

PUBLIC

OPINION

Expressing attitude towards certain subject.

- When attitude is strong enough it reveals itself as the opinion.

- When opinion is strong enough it becomes action – verbal or behavioral

Relates to a group of people, who on certain field has common interest – e.g. share holders, employees, membersof certain social group, etc.

slide11

ATTITUDE

OPINION

ACTION

slide12

PUBLIC OPINION

Is a combination of many individual opinions concerning issues which influence group of people.

In other words

It is a CONSENSUS

slide13

PR try to influence

individual’s attitude

Tries to influence

the way one think

attitude
ATTITUDE
  • Hard to define
  • Generally it is capacity for thinking in a certain way about certain subject
  • On the other hand latest researches shows that it may be a judgment which people use for certain problems or issues

But

  • Judgments not necessarily have to be related to one general attitude – e.g. one may agree with one reaction while disagree with other…
attitude moulding factors
Attitude moulding factors
  • PERSONAL – physical and emotional parts of human being such as: height, age, social status
  • CULTURAL – environment, life style
  • EDUCATIONAL – level and quality of education
  • FAMILY – the way kids are being brought up
  • RELIGIOUS – system of beliefs
  • SOCIAL STATUS FACTORS
  • RACIAL
slide16

ATTITUDE

NEGATIVE

POSSITIVE

LACK OF

slide17

Sometimes this group is called

„SILENT MAJORITY”

  • Latest researches shows
  • that most people
  • are „in the middle”:
  • Passive
  • Neutral
  • Not interested
motivating factors by a maslow
Motivating factors by A. Maslow

Becoming what one can be

  • Respect,
  • Trust,
  • Leadership
  • Strength
  • Success
  • Power
  • Intelligence
  • Love
  • Acceptance
  • Being in a group
  • Belonging
6 cardinal rules
6 cardinal rules
  • DO NOT USE PICTURES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY POSSIBLE ACTIONS PEOPLE CAN DO (do not use pictures of death talking about abortion because association may cause that people will flee the problem)
  • GO TO YOUR SURROUNDING INSTED OF WAITING FOR IT TO COME TO YOU
  • DO NOT ASSUME THAT CHANGE IN ATTITUDE IS NECESSARY FOR CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR
  • USE MORAL ARGUMENTATION AS AN ADDITIONAL NOT MAIN
  • PUT YOURSELF IN MAINSTREAM
  • DO NOT OFFEND PEOPLE YOU’RE TRYING TO CHANGE
slide20

for

TIME

BREAK

We’ll continue in 15 minutes

power of persuasion
Power of persuasion
  • Persuasion is probably most powerful tool of PR
  • It is a goal of most of PR programs
  • The theory of persuasion has millions of explanations and interpretations

Saying straight out

It means to make someone do something thanks to given advice, shown way of understanding or simply – pointing out

needed proof
Needed proof
  • In order to persuade you need a proof to back up
  • Proofs that give you the persuasive effect:
  • Facts - You do not discuss with facts!
  • Emotions – people are emotional!
  • Personification – people react to personal experiences – if an authority talks about personal experiences – it will work!
  • Appealing to „YOU” – people like to know what they are going to get, so I’ll tell YOU what I’ll do for YOU!
influencing public opinion po
Influencing public opinion (PO)

15 laws of influencing public opinion

by Hadley Cantril (social psychologist):

  • It is very sensitive to important events.
  • Extremely important events often cause ultimate PO changes. It all calms down after the event consequences may be seen from a distance.
  • PO is more often described by events then words (saying sth may be an event).
  • Speaking may be most powerful when PO is not moulded – it seeks interpretation from reliable source.
  • In most cases PO do not foresee crisis simply reacts to it.
slide24

Ones opinion is mostly determined by ones interest – impulses influence it as long as connection to the interest is clear.

  • PO can not be interested for a long period of time (unless it is closely connected to their interest or being sustained).
  • When people’s interest is involved it is not easy to change their opinion.
  • When people’s interest is involved PO often is ahead of politics (in democracy).
  • When opinion is sustained by small majority or is not strongly shaped successful event puts PO to acceptance.
slide25

In hard times people are more sensitive about leaders. If they trust them the are willing to give more, if they do not, they become less tolerant.

  • If people feel they take part in decision process the will not oppose.
  • People have more to say when talking about goals. It’ s far worse as ways of getting to them are concerned.
  • PO stays under the influence of desire.
  • In most cases (in democracy) when people have access to education and information they show good reason.
summary
SUMMARY

Influencing public opinion is one of the biggest concerns of PR specialists.

In order to make it possible it is good to foresee and prognoses upcoming trends – MEGATRENDS

Being able to control public opinion is a key to success.

part two

PART TWO

What about ethics?

slide29

Honesty and justice

are base of all PR actions

iabc code of ethics for professional communicators http www iabc com about code htm
IABC Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators(http://www.iabc.com/about/code.htm)

These principles are essential:

  • Professional communication is legal.
  • Professional communication is ethical.
  • Professional communication is in good taste.

Recognizing these principles, members of IABC will:

  • Engage in communication that is not only legal but also ethical and sensitive to cultural values and beliefs;
  • Engage in truthful, accurate and fair communication that facilitates respect and mutual understanding;
  • adhere to the following articles of the IABC Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators.
iabc code of ethics for professional communicators http www iabc com about code htm31
IABC Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators(http://www.iabc.com/about/code.htm)
  • Professional communicators uphold the credibility and dignity of their profession by practicing honest, candid and timely communication and by fostering the free flow of essential information in accord with the public interest.
  • Professional communicators disseminate accurate information and promptly correct any erroneous communication for which they may be responsible.
  • Professional communicators understand and support the principles of free speech, freedom of assembly, and access to an open marketplace of ideas and act accordingly.
  • Professional communicators are sensitive to cultural values and beliefs and engage in fair and balanced communication activities that foster and encourage mutual understanding.
iabc code of ethics for professional communicators http www iabc com about code htm32
IABC Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators(http://www.iabc.com/about/code.htm)
  • Professional communicators refrain from taking part in any undertaking which the communicator considers to be unethical.
  • Professional communicators obey laws and public policies governing their professional activities and are sensitive to the spirit of all laws and regulations and, should any law or public policy be violated, for whatever reason, act promptly to correct the situation.
  • Professional communicators give credit for unique expressions borrowed from others and identify the sources and purposes of all information disseminated to the public.
  • Professional communicators protect confidential information and, at the same time, comply with all legal requirements for the disclosure of information affecting the welfare of others.
iabc code of ethics for professional communicators http www iabc com about code htm33
IABC Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators(http://www.iabc.com/about/code.htm)
  • Professional communicators do not use confidential information gained as a result of professional activities for personal benefit and do not represent conflicting or competing interests without written consent of those involved.
  • Professional communicators do not accept undisclosed gifts or payments for professional services from anyone other than a client or employer.
  • Professional communicators do not guarantee results that are beyond the power of the practitioner to deliver.
  • Professional communicators are honest not only with others but also, and most importantly, with themselves as individuals; for a professional communicator seeks the truth and speaks that truth first to the self.
code by pr society of america
Code by PR Society of America

Articles used most often

  • PR organization member must be honest to clients and employers (past, present and future) and to his colleagues.
  • Must abide by truth and faithfulness and good taste standards.
  • His professional life must be in harmony with public interest.
  • He mustn’t deliberately tell lies or misleading information.
  • He mustn’t engage in any activity which could cause deformation of communication channels.
thank you

Thank you

© Maciej Ulita