ANYONE WHO LIVES WITHIN THEIR MEANS SUFFERS FROM A LACK OF IMAGINATION. - OSCAR WILDE - - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ANYONE WHO LIVES WITHIN THEIR MEANS SUFFERS FROM A LACK OF IMAGINATION. - OSCAR WILDE -

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  1. ANYONE WHO LIVES WITHIN THEIR MEANS SUFFERS FROM A LACK OF IMAGINATION. - OSCAR WILDE -

  2. WHAT DOES THE FIELD OF CHEMICAL KINETICS STUDY?

  3. WHAT DOES THE FIELD OF CHEMICAL KINETICS STUDY? THE RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

  4. NAME FOUR FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS.

  5. NAME FOUR FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS. • NATURE OF THE REACTANTS • CONCENTRATION • TEMPERATURE • SURFACE AREA • PRESENCE OF A CATALYST

  6. ACCORDING TO THE COLLISION THEORY OF REACTIONS, WHAT THREE THINGS NEED TO HAPPEN IN ORDER FOR A REACTION TO OCCUR?

  7. ACCORDING TO THE COLLISION THEORY OF REACTIONS, WHAT THREE THINGS NEED TO HAPPEN IN ORDER FOR A REACTION TO OCCUR? • MOLECULES NEED TO COLLIDE • MOLECULES NEED TO COLLIDE WITH ENOUGH ENERGY FOR A REACTION TO OCCUR • MOLECULES NEED TO COLLIDE WITH THE RIGHT GEOMETRY FOR A REACTION TO OCCUR

  8. WHICH OF THESE FACTOR(S) WOULD EXPLAIN WHY AN INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE WOULD INCREASE THE SPEED OF A CHEMICAL REACTION?

  9. WHICH OF THESE FACTOR(S) WOULD EXPLAIN WHY AN INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE WOULD INCREASE THE SPEED OF A CHEMICAL REACTION? • WHEN YOU INCREASE THE TEMPERATURE, THE SPEED OF MOLECULES INCREASES, SO THE NUMBER OF COLLISIONS PER UNIT TIME WOULD INCREASE. • WHEN YOU INCREASE THE TEMPERATURE, THE ENERGY OF COLLISION INCREASES BECAUSE THE MOLECULES ARE MOVING FASTER (MORE WOULD HAVE THE REQUIRED ACTIVATION ENERGY)

  10. WHICH OF THE FACTOR(S) WOULD EXPLAIN WHY THE ADDITION OF A CATALYST WOULD INCREASE THE SPEED OF A REACTION?

  11. WHICH OF THE FACTOR(S) WOULD EXPLAIN WHY THE ADDITION OF A CATALYST WOULD INCREASE THE SPEED OF A REACTION? • A CATALYST LOWERS THE ACTIVATION ENERGY REQUIRED. • IN SOME CASES, A CATALYST HELPS TO ARRANGE THE CORRECT GEOMETRY BETWEEN THE MOLECULES

  12. Which of the following factors affect the rates of both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions I. Nature of reactants II. Presence of a catalyst III. Temperature of system IV Concentration of reactants A. I and IV only B. II and III only. C. II, III and IV only D. I, II, III and IV

  13. Which of the following factors affect the rates of both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions I. Nature of reactants II. Presence of a catalyst III. Temperature of system IV Concentration of reactants A. I and IV only B. II and III only. C. II, III and IV only D. I, II, III and IV

  14. HOW COULD YOU EXPLAIN THAT MILK WOULD KEEP LONGER IN A REFRIGERATOR THAN LEFT ON THE KITCHEN COUNTER?

  15. HOW COULD YOU EXPLAIN THAT MILK WOULD KEEP LONGER IN A REFRIGERATOR THAN LEFT ON THE KITCHEN COUNTER? THE RATE OF REACTION DECREASES WITH DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE.

  16. WHEN YOU TURN ON THE GAS TO YOUR BURNER IN THE LAB, IT DOES NOT LIGHT UNTIL YOU PROVIDE A SPARK. WHY?

  17. WHEN YOU TURN ON THE GAS TO YOUR BURNER IN THE LAB, IT DOES NOT LIGHT UNTIL YOU PROVIDE A SPARK. WHY? THE SPARK PROVIDES THE ACTIVATION ENERGY NEEDED TO START THE REACTION.

  18. IS THIS AN ENERGY DIAGRAM FOR AN EXOTHERMIC REACTION OR AN ENDOTHERMIC REACTION? WHY?

  19. IS THIS AN ENERGY DIAGRAM FOR AN EXOTHERMIC REACTION OR AN ENDOTHERMIC REACTION? WHY? ENDOTHERMIC – THE PRODUCTS ARE AT A HIGHER ENERGY STATE THAN THE REACTANTS

  20. WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE SAY THAT A CHEMICAL REACTION IS IN DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM?

  21. WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE SAY THAT A CHEMICAL REACTION IS IN DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM? THE FORWARD REACTION RATE IS EQUAL TO THE REVERSE REACTIION RATE. THEY ARE STILL GOING ON, BUT THE CONCENTRATIONS OF PRODUCTS AND REACTIONS REMAIN CONSTANT.

  22. Consider the following: 2NH3(g) ⇄ N2(g) + 3H2(g) A flask is initially filled with NH3. As the system approaches equilibrium, the rate of the forward reaction A. Increases as the rate of the reverse reaction decreases B. Decreases as the rate of the reverse reaction increases C. Increases as the rate of the reverse reaction increases D. Decreases as the rate of the reverse reaction decreases

  23. Consider the following: 2NH3(g) ⇄ N2(g) + 3H2(g) A flask is initially filled with NH3. As the system approaches equilibrium, the rate of the forward reaction A. Increases as the rate of the reverse reaction decreases B. Decreases as the rate of the reverse reaction increases C. Increases as the rate of the reverse reaction increases D. Decreases as the rate of the reverse reaction decreases

  24. In all systems at equilibrium, the • Concentration of reactants is less than the concentration of products • Concentration of reactants and the concentration of products are equal • Concentration of reactants is greater than the concentration of products • D. Concentration of reactants and the concentration of products are constant

  25. In all systems at equilibrium, the • Concentration of reactants is less than the concentration of products • Concentration of reactants and the concentration of products are equal • Concentration of reactants is greater than the concentration of products • D. Concentration of reactants and the concentration of products are constant

  26. Consider the following I Constant Temperature II Equal concentrations of reactants and products III Equal rates of forward and reverse reactions A system at equilibrium must have A. I and II only B. I and III only C. II and III only D. I, II , and III

  27. Consider the following I Constant Temperature II Equal concentrations of reactants and products III Equal rates of forward and reverse reactions A system at equilibrium must have A. I and II only B. I and III only C. II and III only D. I, II , and III

  28. AT EQUILIBRIUM, WE CAN WRITE AN EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT FOR THE REACTION, Keq. WHAT IS THE DEFINITION FOR AN EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT?

  29. AT EQUILIBRIUM, WE CAN WRITE AN EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT FOR THE REACTION, Keq. WHAT IS THE DEFINITION FOR AN EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT? THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT IS EQUAL TO THE PRODUCT OF THE CONCENTRATIONS OF THE PRODUCTS DIVIDED BY THE PRODUCT OF THE CONCENTRATIONS OF THE REACTANTS EACH RAISED TO THE POWER OF THE COEFICIENT THAT IT OCCURS IN THE BALANCED CHEMICAL EQUATION.

  30. Identify the equilibrium system that least favors the formation of products A. 2HgO(s) ⇄ 2Hg(l) + O2(g) Keq = 1.2 x 10-22 B. CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) ⇄ H3O+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq) Keq = 1.8 x 10-5 C. 2NO(g) + O2(g) ⇄2NO2(g) Keq = 6.5 x 105 D. H2(g) + Cl2(g) ⇄ 2HCl(g) Keq = 1.8 x 1033

  31. Identify the equilibrium system that least favors the formation of products A. 2HgO(s) ⇄ 2Hg(l) + O2(g) Keq = 1.2 x 10-22 B. CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l) ⇄ H3O+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq) Keq = 1.8 x 10-5 C. 2NO(g) + O2(g) ⇄2NO2(g) Keq = 6.5 x 105 D. H2(g) + Cl2(g) ⇄ 2HCl(g) Keq = 1.8 x 1033

  32. WRITE THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT FOR THE FOLLOWING REACTION. CH4(g) + H2O(g) ⇌ CO2(g) + 3H2(g)

  33. WRITE THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT FOR THE FOLLOWING REACTION. CH4(g) + H2O(g) ⇌ CO2(g) + 3H2(g) Keq = [CO2][H2]3 / [CH4][H2O]

  34. Consider the following equilibrium: SO2Cl2(g) + energy ⇄ SO2(g) + Cl2(g) When the temperature is decreased, the equilibrium shifts A. Left and [ SO2Cl2 ] increases B. Left and [ SO2Cl2 ] decreases C. Right and [ SO2Cl2 ] increases D. Right and [ SO2Cl2 ] increases

  35. Consider the following equilibrium: SO2Cl2(g) + energy ⇄ SO2(g) + Cl2(g) When the temperature is decreased, the equilibrium shifts A. Left and [ SO2Cl2 ] increases B. Left and [ SO2Cl2 ] decreases C. Right and [ SO2Cl2 ] increases D. Right and [ SO2Cl2 ] increases

  36. Consider the following equilibrium: SO2Cl2(g) + energy ⇄ SO2(g) + Cl2(g) IS THE ABOVE REACTION AN ENDOTHERMIC OR AN EXOTHERMIC REACTION?

  37. Consider the following equilibrium: SO2Cl2(g) + energy ⇄ SO2(g) + Cl2(g) IS THE ABOVE REACTION AN ENDOTHERMIC OR AN EXOTHERMIC REACTION? ENDOTHERMIC – THE SYSTEM IS GAINING ENERGY.

  38. Consider the following equilibrium: C(s) + 2H2(g) ⇄ CH4(g) + 74 kJ When a small amount of solid C is added to the system A. [H2] decreases B. [CH4] increases C. The temperature increases D. All concentrations remain constant

  39. Consider the following equilibrium: C(s) + 2H2(g) ⇄ CH4(g) + 74 kJ When a small amount of solid C is added to the system A. [H2] decreases B. [CH4] increases C. The temperature increases D. All concentrations remain constant

  40. Consider the following equilibrium: 2SO2(g) + O2(g) ⇄ 2SO3(g) ∆H = -198 kJ There will be no shift in the equilibrium when A. More O2 is added B. Catalyst is added C. The volume is increased D. The temperature is increased

  41. Consider the following equilibrium: 2SO2(g) + O2(g) ⇄ 2SO3(g) ∆H = -198 kJ There will be no shift in the equilibrium when A. More O2 is added B. Catalyst is added C. The volume is increased D. The temperature is increased

  42. In an experiment, 0.500 mol of Fe(NO3)3 is dissolved in water to produce a 2.00 L solution. The [NO3-] in this solution is A. 0.250 M B. 0.500 M C. 0.750 M D. 1.50 M

  43. In an experiment, 0.500 mol of Fe(NO3)3 is dissolved in water to produce a 2.00 L solution. The [NO3-] in this solution is A. 0.250 M B. 0.500 M C. 0.750 M D. 1.50 M Fe(NO3)3 Fe+3 + 3NO3-

  44. NAME THE FOLLOWING MOLECULAR IONS: • NO3- • CO3-2 • SO4-2 • PO4-3 • OH- • NH4+

  45. NAME THE FOLLOWING MOLECULAR IONS: • NO3- NITRATE • CO3-2 CARBONATE • SO4-2 SULFATE • PO4-3 PHOSPHATE • OH- HYDROXIDE • NH4+ AMMONIUM

  46. Which one of the following would form an ionic solution when dissolved in water? A. I2 B. CH3OH C. Ca(NO3)2 D. Cl2H22O11

  47. Which one of the following would form an ionic solution when dissolved in water? A. I2 B. CH3OH C. Ca(NO3)2 D. Cl2H22O11

  48. What is the concentration of the ions in 0.50 M Al2(SO4)3 [Al3+] [SO42-] A. 0.33 M 0.50 M B. 1.0 M 1.5 M C. 1.5 M 1.5 M D. 3.0 M 4.5 M

  49. What is the concentration of the ions in 0.50 M Al2(SO4)3 [Al3+] [SO42-] A. 0.33 M 0.50 M B. 1.0 M 1.5 M C. 1.5 M 1.5 M D. 3.0 M 4.5 M

  50. Consider the following solubility equilibrium: MgCO3(s)⇄ Mg2+(aq) + CO32-(aq) The addition of which of the following substances would decrease the solubility of MgCO3? A. H2O B. NaCl C. NaOH D. Na2CO3