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Unit 15 Beyond gravity. Surviving in space. A voyage to Mars may be every astronaut’s dream, but the health risks are formidable. by Michael E. Long. Surviving in space. True/False/DNS Everyone who travels in space suffers from feelings of initially.

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Surviving in space

Unit 15 Beyond gravity

Surviving in space

A voyage to Mars may be every astronaut’s dream, but the health risks are formidable.

by Michael E. Long

Surviving in space1
Surviving in space

  • True/False/DNS

  • Everyone who travels in space suffers from feelings of initially.

    Motion sickness afflicts more than two-thirds of all astronauts upon reaching orbit, … (L1)

  • Astronauts are likely to increase in while in space.

    Spinal discs expand, and so does the astronaut – who may gain five centimeters and suffer…


motion sickness


Surviving in space2
Surviving in space

  • It is important for astronauts to exercise in order to keep their muscles fit.

  • Scientists have found a way of protecting astronauts from .

    … allowing the crew to take refuge in an area where polyethylene shielding will absorb the radiation. (L64-5)


solar radiation

Surviving in space3
Surviving in space

  • If astronauts are given to do, they quickly begin to suffer from .

    … giving people few tasks. (L78)…give them little to do, (L81)…

  • Scientists aim to develop technology that can recognize psychological states.




Surviving in space4
Surviving in space

  • Decide part of the role of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute .

  • NSBRI … will present NASA with a ‘go’ or ‘no go’ recommendation on a Mars mission. (L35-7)

  • …a factory to make drugs …to cope with possible organisms on Mars. (L48-50)

  • Miniature … devices will image … while a small X-ray machine keeps track of … (L50-3)


Surviving in space5
Surviving in space

  • Complete the diagrams.

    Diagrams A and B are about radiation, which is talked about in the last 2 paragraphs on p.125.

    Coronal mass ejections fling billions of tons of electrically charged gas into space.

    A second kind of radiation, cosmic rays from the Milky Way or other galaxies, …




Surviving in space6
Surviving in space

  • Match opinions with experts.

    First locate the names of experts:

    A Oleg Gazenko

    B Jeffrey Sutton

    C Francis Cucinotta

    D Laurence Young

    E Richard Cohen

    F Michael Debakey


L38, 54



L92, 101


Surviving in space7
Surviving in space

  • Match opinions with experts.


    • 13 E (99-100)

    • 14 A (23-24)

    • 15 F (111-3)

    • 16 C (72-3)

Focus on vocabulary
Focus on vocabulary

  • Keys to Task 1:

    1. expansion 2. adaptation, adaptor

    3. adjustment 4. density 5. renewal

    6. confinement 7. survival, survivor

    8. investment, investor 9. disturbance

    10. diagnosis

Focus on vocabulary1
Focus on vocabulary

  • Keys to Task 2:

    1. sight 2. the sun 3. space/the universe

    4. stars (planets, moons, comets, asteroids)

    5. the body (of living things) 6. the heart

    7. the mind 8. diseases of the mind

    9. the stomach 10. bones, joints and muscles

Focus on vocabulary2
Focus on vocabulary

  • Keys to Task 3:

    1. optical illusion 2. solar eclipses/rays

    3. cosmic rays 4. astronomical telescope

    5. physiological features

    6. cardiac arrest/surgeon

    7. psychological warfare/profiling

    8. psychiatric illness/hospital

    9. gastric ulcer 10. orthopedic surgeon/hospital

Non finite verbs
Non-finite verbs 非谓语动词

  • Participles 分词

  • Gerunds 动名词

  • Infinitives 不定式


  • We can see the rising sun.

  • There was a girl sitting there.

  • I found a beggar lying on the road.

  • He remained standing beside the table.

  • Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.

  • Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow.


  • He is a retired worker.

  • This is the question given.

  • I’ll have my watch repaired.

  • She looked tired after a day’s work.

  • The test finished, we began our holiday.

  • Given more attention,the trees could have grown better.

Gerunds 动名词

  • Fighting broke out between the South and the North.

  • Would you mind turning down your radio a little, please?

  • Her job is washing, cleaning and taking care of the children.

  • a writing desk, a swimming pool

Gerunds 动名词

  • admit 承认appreciate感激avoid避免complete完成consider认为delay耽误deny否认detest 讨厌endure忍受enjoy喜欢escape逃脱fancy想象finish 完成imagine想象mind 介意miss想念postpone推迟practice训练recall回忆resent 讨厌resume继续resist抵抗risk 冒险suggest建议face面对include 包括stand忍受understand理解forgive宽恕keep 继续

Gerunds 动名词

  • admit to, object to, be accustomed to, be used to, stick to, turn to, look forward to, be devoted to, pay attention to, contribute to devote oneself to, prefer…to

  • no use, be busy, can't help

Infinitives 不定式

  • It's so nice to hear your voice.

  • I like to keep everything tidy.

  • We believe him to be guilty.

  • His dream is to be a doctor.

  • I have a lot of work to do.

  • He ran so fast as to catch the first bus.

  • I'm glad to see you.

省去to 的动词不定式

  • 情态动词 ( 除ought 外) 后。

  • 使役动词 let, have, make后,感官动词 see, watch, notice , observe, hear, smell, feel, find 等后。注意:被动语态中不能省去to。

  • would rather,had better句型后

  • Why… / why not…句型后

省去to 的动词不定式

  • help 后可带to,也可不带to, help sb (to) do sth。

  • but和except后。but前是实义动词do时,后面出现的不定式不带to。He wants to do nothing but go out. 他只想出去玩。

  • 由and, or和than连接的两个不定式,第二个to 可以省去。