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Outline. Definitions of Research/Evaluation Purposes of Evaluation / Research Science and Scientific Management Research/Evaluation as Process Types of Research / Evaluation. Definitions. Evaluation = Process of judging the merit or worth of something Research

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outline
Outline
  • Definitions of Research/Evaluation
  • Purposes of Evaluation / Research
  • Science and Scientific Management
  • Research/Evaluation as Process
  • Types of Research / Evaluation
definitions
Definitions
  • Evaluation = Process of judging the merit or worth of something
  • Research
    • application of scientific methods to answer questions
    • controlled inquiry directed at increasing knowledge/establishing truth
  • Evaluation Research - combine the two
slide3
Research Evaluation

Evaluation Research

why evaluate the academic list
Why Evaluate - the Academic list
  • To assess merits of alternative programs
  • To discover whether & how well objectives are being fulfilled
  • To determine the reasons for successes & failures.
  • To uncover the principles underlying a successful program.
  • To refine, revise, update or track a program
why evaluate the real list
Why Evaluate- "The Real List"

1. Because we are required to

2. To make better decisions.

3. To learn from experience

4. To justify programs

5. To kill programs

purposes of research
Purposes of Research
  • Answer management questions - applied research
  • For sake of knowing - pure or basic research
  • Answer research questions - methodological
  • Develop/test management alternatives - developmental research
  • Assess worth or merit of programs - evaluationresearch
research purposes ii
Research Purposes - II
  • Exploratory
  • Descriptive
  • Explanatory
  • Predictive
ways of knowing or establishing belief or truth
Ways of Knowing or Establishing belief or truth
  • Tradition
  • Authority
  • Repetition/Tenacity
  • Science
science
Body of Knowledge

systematic

abstract

general

parsimonious

Method of Inquiry

logical

induction

deduction

self-corrective

empirical

Science
scientific management
Scientific Management
  • Application of scientific principles to management and decision making
    • systematic information gathering
    • empirical, objective, self-corrective
process steps
Research

define problem

objectives/hypotheses

literature review

research methods

gather data/analysis

conclusions

Evaluation

describe program

evaluation criteria

program scoping

evaluation methods

gather data/analysis

conclusions

Process -- Steps
types of evaluation by program stage
Types of Evaluationby Program Stage
  • formative (conceptualization/design)]
  • process (implementation)
  • summative (outcomes, impacts, efficiency)
types by approach
Types - By Approach
  • Standards
    • norm-based
    • criterion-referenced
  • Goals and objectives
  • Impacts or effects
types by method
Types- by method
  • Qualitative - quantitative
  • Secondary data - Primary
  • Survey - Experiment
  • Internal vs external
  • Who - Peers, participants, superiors, subordinates, scientists
evaluation criteria
Evaluation Criteria
  • Effort - qnty and qlty of inputs
  • Performance - qnty and qlty of outputs
  • Adequacy - meet needs?
  • Efficiency - benefits/costs
  • Equity - distributional issues, fairness
process evaluation
Process Evaluation
  • Identifies how and why program works
    • attributes
    • recipients
    • conditions
    • effects
      • single or multiple
      • intended or side effects
      • timing & duration, long/short term
      • cognitive, affective or behavioral
types by program area subarea
Types by program area/subarea
  • Emphasis: Parks, Tourism, Interp, Program Mgmt, Commercial Rec, ...
  • Program : lands, facilities, personnel, budget, marketing, PR, maintenance, design, policies, plans
types of research
Types of Research
  • Basic - Applied
  • Exploratory, Descriptive, Explanatory, Predictive
  • In-house / out- house
  • by discipline - sociological, psych, economics
  • by topic - boating, wilderness, legal,tourism, ...
  • by method - survey, expmt, ...
examples of evaluation studies
Examples of Evaluation Studies
  • Community needs assessment
  • Feasibility study, SWOT analysis
  • Program Audits, Market audit
  • Cost/benefit anaysis
  • Impact assessment
  • PPBS, MBO, GPRA, CAPRA, LAC, ...
  • Peer review
  • Importance-performance analysis