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Chapter 3: English Language Development: Issues & Implementation at Grades 6-12. Tony Mora Karla Groth Region 9 COE leads October 7, 2010. Rethinking English Language Instruction for Adolescent English Learners 5 points to consider.

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chapter 3 english language development issues implementation at grades 6 12

Chapter 3: English Language Development:Issues & Implementation at Grades 6-12

Tony Mora

Karla Groth

Region 9 COE leads

October 7, 2010

rethinking english language instruction for adolescent english learners 5 points to consider
Rethinking English Language Instruction for Adolescent English Learners5 points to consider
  • A discussion of the linguistic challenges faced by adolescent English learners
  • An overview of the diversityamong English learners in grades 6-12 & standards-based English proficiency levels
  • A rationale for instructed ELD in the secondary context
  • An analysis of common course placements for adolescent English learners & the potential shortcomings of these placements
  • A model for Instructed ELD in the secondary school context.
i linguistic challenges for adolescent english learners
I. Linguistic Challenges for Adolescent English Learners
  • Complex linguistic knowledge (p. 153)

6 Aspects:

        • Phonology
        • Morphology
        • Vocabulary
        • Syntax
        • Formal & Informal Discourse Styles
        • Academic & Social Functions
i linguistic challenges for adolescent english learners continued
I. Linguistic Challenges for Adolescent English Learners (continued)
  • Academic English
      • The ability to apply general word knowledge differently to a variety of subject areas
  • Gaps in Language Proficiency
      • Many English learners develop oral fluency for “face to face communication,” but cannot perform task that require academic language proficiency
ii diversity of adolescent english learners
II. Diversity of Adolescent English Learners

Adolescent English Learners come with a range of experiences

  • Literacy and content knowledge in the primary language
  • Previous experience in America Schools
  • English language knowledge
    • A “one-size fits all” approach will not work & particular attention needs to be paid to Long Term EL’s (p. 157)
iii a rationale for instructed eld
III. A Rationale for Instructed ELD
  • Adolescent English learners must have a competent second language base if they are to be successful in standards-basedcourse work
  • To reach grade level standards, EL’s need a comprehensive approach which means “…explicit English language instruction through out the day.”
  • Instructional this would include English as its own content (ELD) supported by “…targeted academic English instruction across the subject areas (Dutro & Moran 2003)
iii a rationale for instructed eld continued
III. A Rationale for Instructed ELD(continued)
  • ELD Instruction: Language is in the foreground and content is in the background.
  • Content Instruction: Content is in the foreground and language is in the background.

(p. 163-164)

figure 3 2 blueprint for instruction of adolescent english learners
Figure 3.2 Blueprint for Instruction of Adolescent English Learners

Explicit Language Instruction

For Content Learning

Purpose: Teach language needed…

Content: Determined by lesson & student knowledge of English

Teachers Need: tools to plan lang. &content learning. Support through collaborative planning

iv common student placements and potential shortcomings
IV. Common Student Placements and Potential Shortcomings
  • English Language Development (ELD)
    • Many adolescent EL’s do not receive ELD support once they have reached upper intermediate level on the CELDT
  • Reading Intervention
    • Often based on CST or placement test without consideration for the English level or primary language skills
  • Sheltered content area instruction
    • Focus almost exclusively on access to the core/content. Language learning often becomes secondary or a non-existent part of instruction. Opportunity to develop the skills for speaking & writing about the content is lost.
  • Special Education
    • IEP’s for English learners need to include language proficiency goals.
v a model for explicit language instruction
V. A Model for Explicit Language Instruction
  • Purposeful use of language identified in ELD standards (language functions)
      • To perform Cognitive tasks
      • To express thinking orally and in writing
      • To inform text structure
      • To engage in social and academic conversation

Relevance to EL Instruction:

      • Participate in discussion
      • Describe, explain, and elaborate
      • Predict
      • Express action and time relationships
      • Draw Conclusions

(Figure 3.3 p. 171)

v a model for explicit language instruction continued
V. A Model for Explicit Language Instruction (continued)
  • Language tools needed to accomplish these goals (brick and mortar words)
      • What language tools are needed to communicate for different purposes?
      • What language is needed to comprehend text and express thinking orally and in writing?
      • Mortar-Functional words and phrases in sentences structures
          • Would have liked to
          • Are usually/tend to
      • Bricks-Topic specific words
          • Tree, elbow (basic)
          • Debate, government, arid (general)
          • War of Independence, incisor, germinate (specialized)

(Figure 3.3 p. 171)

a model for explicit language instruction continued
A Model for Explicit Language Instruction (continued)
  • Robust and contextualized instruction that includes many opportunities to engage in language practice (error free language & language that is easily produced)
      • How are language tools introduced, modeled, and practiced using an I/We/You Do It approach?
      • What opportunities for structured interaction are provided for students to practice the language they are learning?
      • How are students supported in gaining oral and written fluency?

(Figure 3.3 p. 171)