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Part 3: Survey Methods
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  1. Part 3: Survey Methods 1. Existing Substrate Surveys 2. Artificial Substrate Surveys 3. Plankton Surveys

  2. Sampling Methodology Considerations

  3. Existing Substrate Surveys Targeted Life Stages – Juvenile and adult

  4. Existing Substrate Surveys Surveying Period and Frequency • Once every two weeks… Ideally • With limited resources, target months when water temps are optimal for spawning & growth (>52 degrees F)

  5. Existing Substrate SurveysSite Selection Environmental Parameters • Light level – Low Light • Water current – Low Flow Other Considerations • Proximity to High-Risk Areas • Shaded side of permanent structures • Easily viewed and/or reached • Accessibility & Safety

  6. Existing Substrate Surveys-Recommended Great places to survey • Underside of docks, navigational buoys, moorings, etc. • Inside crevices of anchors and other substrates • Natural materials (rocks, wood, aquatic plants and animals)

  7. Existing Substrate Surveys Methods • Visual • Tactile • Underwater (diving)

  8. Existing Substrate Surveys Minimum Distance for Visual

  9. Existing Substrate Surveys Tactile Method • Detect small juvenile mussels on surfaces that can be reached but not easily viewed. • Using a light touch, run bare hand along length of surface.

  10. Existing Substrate Surveys Tactile Method Small mussels • Detected on smooth surface. • Feel like tiny bumps the size of sand grains and irregularly spaced. Large mussels • Irregularly spaced and range in size from sunflower seeds to almonds. Feel for objects or substances that rotate and stay attached when lightly pushed.

  11. Questions?

  12. Artificial Substrate Surveys

  13. Artificial Substrate Surveys – Why 1. Monitoring sites where existing surfaces are difficult to reach. . 2. Evaluation type surveys

  14. Artificial Substrate Surveys Targeted Life Cycle Stage Juvenile Mussels: Filamentous substrates –fibrous ropes, scrub brushes. Juvenile/Adult Mussels: Hard substrates – plastic PVC, cement, ceramic material.

  15. Artificial Substrate Surveys Surveying Period and Frequency • Once a month • Deploy when water temperature > 48° F

  16. Artificial Substrate Surveys Site Selection • Deploy in high risk areas. • Infrastructure with easy access and surface area for easy attachment of survey lines. • Consult with managing staff of the water body to determine depth and water clarity… and get permission

  17. Artificial Substrate Surveys Substrate Selection • Concrete • Plastic (PVC, ABS) • Polypropylene rope • Fiberglass • Wood • Steel • Aluminum

  18. What Not To Use • Copper • Silicon

  19. Artificial Substrate Surveys Rope Important Too!

  20. Artificial Substrate Surveys Survey Lines Single Substrate Multiple Substrate Horizontal Substrate

  21. Artificial Substrate Surveys Line Attachment Sites

  22. Please Do Not Disturb Please Do Not Disturb Ecological Monitoring in Progress Organization Name Scientific Collection Permit # Contact: (XXX) XXX-XXXX

  23. Questions?

  24. Plankton Surveys Target Life Stage = Larvae (Veliger) Microscopic – invisible to the unaided eye. Eventually becomes visible to the unaided eye, appearing as a nondescript speck.

  25. Plankton Surveys Preparation for Collection • Scientific Collecting Permit • Site selection (boats and docks) • Site permission • Safety

  26. Plankton Surveys Two types of tows • Vertical Tows • Horizontal Tows Materials and Equipment • GPS • Ethanol and Sample Jars • Spooled and Marked line • Modified (63 Micron) Mesh Plankton two net with closure valve • Cooler with ice • Decontamination materials • DFG Plankton Tow Data Sheets

  27. Plankton Surveys • Sample Identification • Sample Preservation • Sample Shipment

  28. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)

  29. Microscopy Veligers under polarized light and normal light.

  30. Questions?

  31. Where to monitor???? Monitoring Plans

  32. Monitoring Plans Where to monitor???? = Vertical Lines (deeper water) = Horizontal Lines (shallower water)

  33. Monitoring Efforts Already monitoring? Infested Uninfested • Interested in monitoring? • Interested in assisting with experimental monitoring?

  34. Workshop(s) 2012 It’s Here – Now What? If interested, please indicate on evaluation form Eradication/Control Preparedness • Potential strategies • Requirements for implementing strategies • - permits, equipment, training etc. • Networking & coordination of activities