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Survey of Tactical Methods. XONITEK Consulting Group Int’l Friday, August 13, 2010. Six Sigma Frameworks / Charting. The PDCA Framework. Classic concept from W. Edwards Deming in quality management Plan Determine “what” to improve and “how” to accomplish the change Do

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Survey of tactical methods

Survey of Tactical Methods

XONITEK Consulting Group Int’l

Friday, August 13, 2010

Six sigma frameworks charting

Six Sigma Frameworks / Charting

The pdca framework
The PDCA Framework

Classic concept from W. Edwards Deming in quality management


  • Determine “what” to improve and “how” to accomplish the change


  • Implement the change


  • Are the results as expected?

    Act (or Adjust)

  • Go back and make changes to achieve the desired result

    Iterate the PDCA process for continuous improvement

Presented by XONITEK Corporation

The dmaic framework
The DMAIC Framework

The Six Sigma evolution of PDCA


  • What is the problem or opportunity?

  • Based on the Voice of the Customer and internal goals


  • Collect data relevant to the goals of the project


  • Analyze the data, to determine root cause of deficiencies

Presented by XONITEK Corporation

The dmaic framework1
The DMAIC Framework


  • Implement changes

  • Might involve pilot testing, Design of Experiments, etc.


  • Implement measures to ensure the new process is consistently applied (Standard Work)

  • Ensure control measures are in places, such as Statistical Process Control (SPC)

    There is a similar framework for new product development (DMADV)

Presented by XONITEK Corporation

The sipoc framework
The SIPOC Framework


Step 1

Step 2

Step 3





Very useful in conjunction with high-level Value Stream Maps

Excellent way to take a “first pass” at process structure

Presented by XONITEK Corporation

The normal curve
The Normal Curve…


  • Data points are symmetrical around the “mean”, the center of the curve.

  • The width of the curve demonstrates the extent of the variation.






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A normal curve over a histogram
A Normal Curve over a Histogram…

  • This is a curve fitted over a Histogram from Minitab.

  • The Mean or Average is 5.889.

  • The standard deviation is1.928.

  • Number of sample data is27.

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Data types
Data Types

Continuous Data

  • Can take on any value (12, 12.55, 12.5599218430…)

  • Examples: Database response time, bus run duration

  • Charts: XmR, X-bar,R, X-bar, S

    Discrete / Attribute Data

  • Can take on a value only from specific choices (True/False, Red/Yellow/Green)

  • Examples: Query succeeded or failed, driver reported for shift or did not

  • Charts: np, p, c, u

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Sample xbar r chart
Sample Xbar-R Chart

Upper Spec Limit




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Control chart interpretation
Control Chart Interpretation

If control limits are within specification limits, process is likely to be “within control”

Common cause variation is within acceptable limits

If not, consider a Six Sigma project to improve the process

Presented by XONITEK Corporation

Control chart interpretation1
Control Chart Interpretation

Visual inspection of the chart can indicate potential problems within the process:

  • Points outside the control limits

  • A gradual shift of the process mean

  • A trend up or down in values

  • Non-random cycles

  • Etc.

    Control chart violations typically point to potential special cause variation

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Key measure process capability
Key Measure: Process Capability

1.33 ≤ Cpk ≤ 2 Process is capable of consistently delivering to customer specification

Cpk = 2 Six Sigma performance

Presented by XONITEK Consulting Group Int’l

Six sigma frameworks charting1

Six Sigma Frameworks / Charting

*** Questions and Discussion ***

Typical product development process
Typical product development process...

  • A company crisis prompts action…

    • Angry customer

    • Hot selling product/service from competitor

    • Obsolescence

  • Negative Reactionary Impacts

    • Poor selling dud

    • Hot selling, but defective

    • Lots of development but no product/service

Presented by XONITEK Corporation

When should you use qfd
When should you use QFD?

  • Incremental Innovation

    • Making improvements to an existing service

    • (Easy to gather customer needs)

  • Operations Planning

    • Matching a set of equipment/operators/IT resources to a set of product families/service offerings

  • Human Resource Strategy

    • Comparing current employee skillsets to the results of a strategic planning process

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The qfd approach step 1
The QFD Approach, Step 1

  • Identify the Customer

    • External

      • Market segment?

      • Use profile?

      • Key success factors?

    • Internal

      • Why is this product/process needed?

      • Is it really valuable to meeting external customer demands?

      • Establish the project team!

Presented by XONITEK Corporation

The qfd approach step 2
The QFD Approach, Step 2

  • Gather Needs Data

    • Surveys

    • Focus Groups

    • Studies

    • Complaints

    • The Blogosphere

    • Your competitors’ products

      Goal: Product features + relative importance

Presented by XONITEK Corporation

The qfd approach step 3
The QFD Approach, Step 3

  • Organize the Input

    • Affinity Diagrams Find key concepts

    • Tree Diagrams Identify Cause and effect

    • Pareto Charts Quantify results for factors

      Be careful not to “bias” the results;

      Ensure this is really the customers’ voice.

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The qfd approach step 4
The QFD Approach, Step 4

  • Build the QFD, incorporating…

    • Customer needs

    • Design requirements

    • Ability to deliver on requirements

    • Competitors’ performance

      Examples to follow…

Presented by XONITEK Corporation

How the qfd is built
How the QFD is Built….

Design Correlation Table

The elemental structure of the house…

Design How’s

Or Company offerings

Category Header

Customer and Competitor Ratings

Customer “What”

Or “Needs”

Customer and Engineering/Company Relationships

Technical Ranking

Technical Values for Objectives

Presented by XONITEK Corporation

Building the relationships
Building the Relationships…


Develop the relationship between a customer’s Needs and a Gym’s Offerings….

The Customer Needs are derived from interviews and surveys….

Company Offerings


Customer Needs

First list the customer needs

and the company offerings



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Survey of tactical methods

Correlate the Customer and Company…

Establish the strength of the relationships between the Wants and the Needs conveyed using symbols…



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Define customer significance competitor benchmarks
Define Customer Significance & Competitor Benchmarks...

Customer Significance to each “Need” should be noted.

The Competitors’ positions with regards to those needs.

If there are “selling” points based on these comparisons they should be denoted.







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Establish the relationship of the offerings
Establish the “Relationship” of the Offerings…

Very Strong Relationship

Strong relationship

Establish strength of the Design or Offerings relationships to each other….

Weak relationship

Program times

Maint.. schedule

Fitness staff

Facility size

Staff schedule


Fee structure

Maint. staff

Access control

Amt./types equip.


Facility hours

Internet access

Program offerings


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Establish the technical values and rankings
Establish the Technical Values and Rankings…

List the Competitors’ technical ranking.

Establish your own targets for offerings.

Identify the most critical actions that you need to undertake to satisfy the customer.





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Quality function deployment qfd1

Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

*** Questions and Discussion ***

Survey of tactical methods

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A way to conduct a “reliability analysis” of a product or service

A systematic look for:

  • Function

  • Failure causes

  • Failure modes

  • Failure consequences

Types of fmea activities
Types of FMEA activities

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DFMEA – Design analysis of:

  • Components

  • Subsystems

  • Main systems

    PFMEA – Process analysis of:

  • Equipment

  • Scheduling

  • Workstations

  • Gages

  • Procurement

  • Employee training

  • Tests

Fmea reference form
FMEA Reference Form

Sample FMEA form…

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Fmea header data
FMEA Header Data

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FMEA Title – Name of the System, Subsystem, Component or Process…

FMEA Type – Circle or otherwise highlight if this is a Design or Process project.

Project Leader – Person responsible for the FMEA overall…

Prepared By – Individual maintaining updates on the project.

Project Description – Concise and easy to understand description of the function…

  • Include any additional technical parameters to help define the failure modes…

Fmea header data1
FMEA Header Data

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  • Original Date – the date the FMEA was created.

  • Revised Date – this is the date the input from various persons was added to the file.

  • Key Date – the targeted completion date of the project.

    Core Team – Members of the team responsible for the development of the FMEA and various aspects of its completion.

Current state section
Current State Section

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Item or Function – Identifies the various parts, processes or subsystems that may fail.

  • Use Brainstorming to begin to identify these elements of the FMEA.

    • Man, materials, design, process, environment.

  • Fishbone Diagrams may be useful to “get to” the root causes.

    Potential Failure Mode – Describes how the process or design may fail to perform with regard to design or process parameters…

  • Can be a list of separate failure modes for the same functions

  • May reference the upper or lower assembly impacts…

    Potential Effects Mode – Describes the impact of the failure with regards to the customer (internal or external)…

  • “If – Then” consequential statements.

    Classification – Optional information, used when Govt. Regs., Safety Considerations or Engr. Specs exist for the product or process…

  • Use a key for this field and add to the FMEA form to clarify symbols.

Severity rating scale
Severity Rating Scale

  • Severity Rating – Scale of 1 to 10 created by the team… with 10 as the most severe.

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Current state section1
Current State Section

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Potential Causes of Failure – Descriptive and comprehensive list of all “root” causes of failure…

  • Reference “Fishbone” diagram as one of the tools to find this cause…

  • Each “potential failure mode” may have more than one cause of failure.

    OccurrenceRating – An estimate of the frequency of the failure… derived from a team created table…

  • Occurrence ranking shown on next slide…

Occurrence rating scale
Occurrence Rating Scale

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Current state section2
Current State Section

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Current Controls Prevention – Identify the methods and testing parameters that exist to find this failure...

Current ControlsDetection – Defines the manner that the defect is identified…

  • Preference is detection by use of SPC or other testing methods.

  • Discovery by failure is NOT preferred…

    DetectionRating – User defined table with assigned probabilities and associated rankings…

  • Ranking table guide in next slide…

Detection ranking
Detection Ranking

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Current state section3
Current State Section

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Risk Priority Number(RPN) – A value to rank the concerns calculated from the multiplication of the other rankings …

  • RPN = Severity x Occurrence x Detection (the product of these three values)

    • Use this value to prioritize the actions and resources of the organization.

    • Do not overstep your resource capabilities… set a threshold of items for action and focus on those items first.

  • Items with lower numbers but still have high severity must be addressed…

    Recommended Actions – Actions taken to lower the RPN… includes Cause and Effect diagrams, control charts or other actions necessary to reduce the risk tied to the RPN…

Actions to rpn
Actions to RPN

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Develop a strategy of what items to address in what order…

  • Look for “synergy” of activities, where multiple problems may overlap.

  • If you can’t eliminate the issue find ways to make it easily detectable when it occurs.

  • Reduction of “severity” or “occurrence” is preferred over making the failure more detectable.

    Document all process or design changes and their impacts as part of the report out methodology.

  • Recalculate the RPN as improvements are made to re-establish priorities.

Details of filling out the fmea
Details of filling out the FMEA

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Person Responsible and Due Date – Enter the name of the person who has the lead action and target date of completion…

Actions Taken – Describe the action and implementation date…

Severity/Occurrence/Detection – The revised values based on actions taken…

RPN – Revised RPN recalculated (multiply the three values: Severity, Detection and Occurrence) from the values above…

Sample completed fmea
Sample Completed FMEA

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Failure mode and effects analysis fmea1

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)

*** Questions and Discussion ***