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E ducation for R ural P eople. David Acker Lavinia Gasperini Professor , Agricultural Education Senior Officer, Agricultural Education Raymond and Mary Baker Chair Office of Knowledge Exchange,

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e ducation for r ural p eople

Education for Rural People

David Acker Lavinia Gasperini

Professor , Agricultural Education Senior Officer, Agricultural Education

Raymond and Mary Baker Chair Office of Knowledge Exchange,

in Global Agriculture Research and Extension (OEK)

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Food and Agriculture Organization

Iowa State University, USA of the United Nations (FAO)

Ministerial Conference on Higher Education in Agriculture (CHEA)

Kampala, November 15-19, 2010

purpose of erp
Purpose of ERP

Share global synthesis of policy lessons learned on:

Education for




underlying premise
Underlying Premise

Investments in rural people education, training, and capacity development are essential prerequisites to reducing poverty and increasing food security.

erp objectives
ERP Objectives
  • Placing ERP high in the national and International Agenda to achieve the MDGs
  • Focusing on improving access to quality education for rural people
  • Fostering national capacity to address learning needs of rural people to overcome the urban-rural education gap
erp contributes to mdgs
ERP Contributes to MDGs:
  • ERP is critical to the achievement of all MDGs and particularly:
    • MDG 1:Eradicating extreme poverty & hunger
    • MDG 2: Achieving universal primary education
    • MDG 3: Gender equity, empowering women
    • MDG 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability



























10 Challenges

10 Cases

effective pro rural policies
Effective Pro-rural Policies

Motivating major changes in policy and resource allocation to favor rural citizens

ERP related capacity development at societal, insitutional and individual level

Challenge # 1

effective pro rural policies1
Effective Pro-rural Policies

Case # 1

11 African Countries

“Food security and poverty reduction strategies are

directly dependent on our capacity to foster rural

children's access to quality primary education.”

organizational and institutional efficiency
Organizational and Institutional Efficiency

Coordination among MoE, MoAg, extension, schools, NGOs and the private sector is essential for optimal efficiency

Challenge # 2

organizational and institutional efficiency1
Organizational and Institutional Efficiency


National strategy for ERP developed through cooperation between agriculture and education ministries

Local stakeholders involved:

- School personnel

- Farmers

- Women’s associations

Case # 2

access to education and training
Access to Education and Training

Challenge # 3

  • Removal of school fees
  • Mobile extension staff
  • School feeding programs
  • Expansion of the education network
    • School and training center construction
    • Satellite schools in remote areas for young children
access to education and training1
Access to Education and Training

Case # 3

  • India
  • A private sector – government partnership to provide school meals to 800,000 children daily.
  • Link: education - child’s health
  • Meals increase school attendance, especially among girls and improved learning ability
  • Uses locally grown produce
  • Large centralized kitchens
  • - Meals distributed daily by truck
quality of education and training
Quality of Education and Training

Quality depends on:







community links

Challenge # 4

quality of education and training1
Quality of Education and Training


Quality and relevance are linked

Agriculture is part of curriculum

Garden produce helps supply school lunch program

Important link between quality and relevance, vital to increasing appeal and utility of education for rural people.

Case # 4

decentralization and community involvement
Decentralization and Community Involvement

Challenge # 5

Decentralization of authority and responsibility for

education and training

The importance of high levels of community involvement

in determining appropriate education interventions

decentralization and community involvem ent
Decentralization and Community Involvement


Formation of school committees of parents, teachers and local leaders

Construction of village based satellite schools for young children who could not walk long distances

Parents provided the labor to build the school

Local residents trained as teachers

Case # 5

gender responsive learning environments
Gender Responsive Learning Environments

Girl friendly schools

Safe accommodations for girls and women

Flexible timetables

Take-home food for girls

Challenge # 6

g ender responsive learning environments
Gender Responsive Learning Environments

Burkina Faso

A high percentage of girls do not finish primary school

Girl friendly schools see enrolments soar in 132 communities

- separate toilet facilities

- girls who attend 90% or more of the time are given take home rations

Case # 6

accommodating non traditional learners
Accommodating Non-traditional Learners

refugees and displaced persons

people in inaccessible, remote areas

nomadic and pastoral communities

out-of-school youth

disabled persons

ethnic minorities

retired child soldiers

working children

Challenge # 7

accommodating non traditional learners1
Accommodating Non-traditional Learners

Case # 7


Non-traditional learning for children of pastoralist families

Classes take place after animals

are penned for the night allowing

students to fulfill their duties managing the animals

Curriculum developed in consultation with parents, local leaders and students

Multi-grade classes

redefining agricultural education
Redefining Agricultural Education

Challenge # 8

Fundamental changes needed in how

agricultural education is conceptualized

Agricultural education has simply not kept

up with the pace of our changing world

redefining agricultural education1
Redefining Agricultural Education

Case # 8


Teaching entrepreneurship through agricultural education

Self sufficient, fully organic farm school

Teaches value added processing

Teaches life skills, agro-tourism, reproductive health

skills training for rural people
Skills Training for Rural People

Skills needed to succeed in global, knowledge economies

Challenge # 9

- Life skills

- Food production skills

- Self-employment skills

skills training for rural people1
Skills Training for Rural People

Case # 9


Capacity development, life skills training, income generating activities

Community-based health and nutrition education

Use of trained volunteers to extend training throughout community

recruitment and retention of extension and school staff
Recruitment and Retention of Extension and School Staff

Challenge # 10

Difficulty in attracting and retaining

extension and school staff to rural areas

recruitment and retention of extension and school staff1
Recruitment and Retention of Extension and School Staff

Multiple countries

More attractive deployment policies:

Case # 10

  • posting newly qualified staff in pairs
  • higher salaries
  • loan forgiveness
  • subsidized housing
  • better health care
  • access to land


Education for rural people is critical to insuring that development efforts are successful and that future generations will succeed.

what will success look like
What Will Success Look Like?

ERP well established and funded at societal, institutional and individual level and expanded access and improved quality of education of all rural children, youth and adults (CD Societal and Institutional Level)

Rural people (CD Individual level):

  • engaged in knowledge-based economies
  • prepared to learn to adapt and cope with globalization and market forces, climate change, food crises and other shocks


Will benefit from agricultural extension, skills training, literacy training and basic education.


Children and Youth

Will benefit from quality education and training opportunities to ensure their livelihoods are improved relative to those of their parents.

“We will work to increase public investments and encourage private investment in the country- developed plans for rural infrastructure and support services, including- but not limited- to roads, storage, irrigation, communication infrastructure, education, technical support and health.”

(Declaration of the World Summit on Food Security, Rome, 2009)