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Chapter 18 Industry and Urban Growth

Chapter 18 Industry and Urban Growth. Industry Boom. the nation expanded west and found deposits of coal, iron, and copper, Government created policies that favored industrial growth Including tariffs Tax on imports. Steel and Oil. Building blocks of modern United States. Inventions.

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Chapter 18 Industry and Urban Growth

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  1. Chapter 18Industry and Urban Growth

  2. Industry Boom • the nation expanded west and found deposits of coal, iron, and copper, • Government created policies that favored industrial growth • Including tariffs • Tax on imports

  3. Steel and Oil • Building blocks of modern United States

  4. Inventions • In the late 1800s Americans started to create many new inventions • In 1897 the government issued more patents than in the ten years before the Civil War • America became known as the land of Invention

  5. Inventions • Thomas Edison- invented the light bulb, phonograph, motion picture camera, and hundreds of other devices • In 1882, Edison opened the nation’s first electrical power plant in New York City • Helped to bring in the age of electricity

  6. Inventions • Communications • In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell built a device that carried the human voice (telephone) • By 1885 more than 300,00 phones had been sold • Succeeded in 1876 when he sent the first telephone message to his assistant “Mr. Watson, come here. I want you.”

  7. Inventions • Other inventions include the type writer, shoe making machine, light weight camera, flash for the camera

  8. Inventions • In 1900 only 8,000 Americans owned automobiles • Henry Ford perfected a system that made the automobile available to millions, known as the assembly line • By 1917 more than 4.5 million Americans owned cars

  9. Inventions • In 1903 Wilbur and Orville Wright were the first people ever to fly • The first flight lasted 12 seconds and flew 120 feet

  10. Chapter 18Industry and Urban Growth

  11. New Ways of Doing Business • Business expansion was led by bold entrepreneurs • Businesses became corporations • Corporations limited the risk of investors

  12. New Ways of Doing Business • Banks lent huge amounts of money to corporations, which led to industries growing faster

  13. Growth of Big Business • Government had a laissez-faire approach to business in the late 1800s • They allowed for the rapid growth of big business and for the creation of monopolies

  14. Growth of Big Business • Andrew Carnegie • Managed to gain control of the steel industry • Believed that the rich had a duty to improve society (Gospel of Wealth)

  15. Growth of Big Business • John D. Rockefeller • Started an oil refinery at the age of 23 • Used his profits to buy other oil companies and managed to take control of the oil industry

  16. Working Conditions • Industries attracted millions of new workers • Most were immigrants or native born whites

  17. Working Conditions • Women worked and outnumbered men in some industries, such as textile mills, tobacco factories, and the garment sweatshops of New York • Children worked in bottle factories, textile mills, tobacco factories, coal mines, and sweatshops • Most child laborers could not go to school, and had little chance of improving their lives

  18. Working Conditions • New York City, March 25, 1911 fire broke out in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory. • Hundreds of workers raced to the exits only to find the exits were locked • Nearly 150 people died as a result of the fire

  19. Working Conditions • Factory work was dangerous • Workers would breathe in fibers or dust while working at textile mills or mines and would come down with lung diseases • Steelworkers risked death and burns from the molten metal • Social Darwinists believed that harsh conditions were necessary to cut costs, increase production, and ensure survival of the business

  20. Lewis Hine • was an American sociologist and photographer. Hine used his camera as a tool for social reform. His photographs were instrumental in changing the child labor laws in the United States

  21. Workers Organize • Workers attempted to form unions in order to secure safer working conditions, higher wages, and shorter hours

  22. Workers Organize • Knights of Labor-1869 • One of the earliest and most powerful unions in the United States • Success were undercut by a series of violent labor disputes • Haymarket Square

  23. Workers Organize • 1886 Samuel Gompers formed a new union called the American Federation of Labor (AFL) • By 1904 the AFL had over one million members

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