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Immigration and Modern Urban Growth. Chapter 20 Section 2. Industrialization Changes Cities. New inventions and materials sped up industrial growth. Industries drawn to cities with good transportation and plentiful workers. Urbanization – the growth of cities.

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industrialization changes cities
Industrialization Changes Cities
  • New inventions and materials sped up industrial growth.
  • Industries drawn to cities with good transportation and plentiful workers.
  • Urbanization – the growth of cities.
  • skyscrapers. Increased the amount of housing and business.
  • 1889 – the first elevator was installed allowing for taller buildings.
  • The use of steel helped engineers for building.
continued
continued
  • Skyscrapers changed city skylines forever.
  • 1900 – electric streetcars
  • By allowing workers to live further away from their jobs, public transportation helped new suburbs develop.
  • Some suburbs wanted to merge with big cities for the transportation. (Chicago)
the new immigrants
The New Immigrants
  • Key ? – who were the new immigrants and where did they settle in the U.S.?
  • Before 1896 immigrants came from northern and western Europe.
  • After 1896 immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe. (southern Italy, Poland and Russia.
  • This group became known as the “new immigrants”.
the new immigrants1
The New immigrants
  • Key ? Who were the new immigrants and where did they settle in the U.S.?
  • Ellis Island – (New York) first stop for European immigrants.
  • Had to pass physical health exam – name, occupation, and financial situation .
  • Angel Island – (San Francisco) filthy buildings and held for weeks.
  • Mexican immigrants usually entered through Texas.
finding work and housing
Finding work and housing
  • Immigrants drawn to cities for work.
  • Ethnic neighborhoods were created. (Little Italy)
  • European –settled in the East and Midwest.
  • Look for industrial jobs.
  • Asian – settled in the West.
  • Chinese worked on the railroads; Japanese worked on sugar plantations.
  • Fished, farmed, or worked in mines.
  • Mexicans found work on ranches in CA and TX, and copper mines in AZ.
what did native born americans fear about immigrants
What did native- born americans fear about immigrants?
  • “Melting Pot” – a place where cultures blend.
  • Assimilation – blending into society; studied English and American citizenship.
  • Did not give up their cultures completely.
  • Native-born citizens feared new religions coming in, being controlled by politicians, taking jobs from them.
  • Immigrants would take any job for cheap wages.
  • Sweatshops –hot crowded dangerous factories.
contiued
Contiued
  • Some Americans wanted immigration banned or restricted.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act – banned Chinese immigration for 10 years.
  • Chinese workers faced low wages and violence.
  • Mexicans and African Americans were forced into peonage; a system of labor, people are forced to work until they have paid off debts.
what problems were caused by urbanization
What Problems were caused by urbanization?
  • Natural Disasters (San Francisco)
  • Poverty and Disease.
  • Old run-down tenements: crowded, landlord neglect, poor design, garbage and sewage.
  • Slums
  • Jane Adams – founded Hull House in Chicago; to help with daycare, education, and health care to needy.
  • Settlement houses began to spring up inspired by the social gospel movement. (worked for labor reform)
political machines
Political Machines
  • Political machine – is an illegal gang that influences enough votes to control a local government.
  • Tammany Hall – the most famous located in New York was led by William Marcy Tweed (“Boss Tweed”)
  • Stole money from the city.
  • Ironically, they did some good things like building parks, sewers schools, roads, and orphanages in many cities.
  • Immigrants supported the machines in return for finding them jobs.