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Patterns of Colonial Settlement

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  1. Patterns of Colonial Settlement

  2. Topography of the US

  3. The Contour of the US

  4. New England Topography of the Northeast Middle Colonies

  5. New York’s Canals

  6. North-South Divide: The Mason-Dixon Line Charles Mason & Jeremiah Dixon: 1763-1767

  7. Topography of the Southeast

  8. Bodies of Water Great Salt Lake Chesapeake Bay LakeOkeechobee

  9. Rivers St. Lawrence R. Columbia R. Hudson R. Missouri R. Mississippi R. Chesapeake Bay Ohio R. Colorado R. Arkansas R. Rio Grande R. Yukon R.

  10. Mountains & Plateaus Adirondack Mts. Cascade Mts. Rocky Mts. Appalachian Mts. Sierra Nevada Mts. Alaskan Range

  11. Completed Map St. Lawrence R. Columbia R. Adirondack Mts. Cascade Mts. Hudson R. Missouri R. Rocky Mts. Great Basin Cumberland Plateau Great Salt Lake Mississippi R. Chesapeake Bay Central Plains Appalachian Mts. Sierra Nevada Mts. Ohio R. Colorado R. Death Valley Arkansas R. Mohave Desert Gulf Coastal Plains LakeOkeechobee Rio Grande R. Yukon R. Alaskan Range

  12. The American Landscape

  13. English Migration: 1610-1660

  14. The Settlement of the Chesapeake Virginia & Maryland

  15. English Colonization • The Charter of the Virginia Company: • Guaranteed colonists same rights as Englishmen. • 1607  Jamestown, • Easily defended, but swarming with disease-causing mosquitoes.

  16. Chesapeake Bay Tidewater Geographic/environmental problems??

  17. Jamestown Colonization Pattern:1620-1660

  18. Jamestown Fort & Settlement Map

  19. Jamestown Housing

  20. High Mortality Rates • The “Starving Time”: • 1607: 104 colonists • By spring, 1608: 38 survived • 1609: 300 more immigrants • By spring, 1610: 60 survived • 1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants • 1624 population: 1,200 • Adult life expectancy: 40 years • Death of children before age 5: 80%

  21. Powhatan Confederacy

  22. Culture Clash in the Chesapeake • 1610-1614  First Anglo-Powhatan War • Raided villages, burned houses, took supplies, burned cornfields. • 1622 Indians attacked English, killing 347 [including John Rolfe]. • Peace Treaty of 1646 • Removed Powhatans from their land

  23. Powhatan Uprisingof 1622

  24. Tobacco Prices: 1618-1710 1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco. 1622 —60,000 pounds of tobacco. 1629 — 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.

  25. Indentured Servitude HeadrightSystem

  26. Indentured Servitude • Headright System: • Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid. • Indenture Contract: • 5-7 years. • 1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts!

  27. 17c Populationin the Chesapeake

  28. Maryland: Catholic Haven • Royal charter granted to George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, in 1632. • A proprietarycolony created in 1634. • A healthier locationthan Jamestown. • Tobacco = main crop. • Huge tracts of land granted to his Catholic relatives. • Catholic land barons surrounded by mostly Protestant small farmers. • Conflict between barons and farmers led to Baltimore losing proprietary rights at end of the 17c.

  29. Colonization of Maryland

  30. The Settlement of New England

  31. New England The Settlement of New England

  32. Colonizing New England

  33. Separatists: Pilgrims vs. Puritans

  34. The Mayflower • 1620  a group of 102 people [half Separatists] • Negotiated with theVirginia Company to settle in its jurisdiction. • Non-Separatists included Captain Myles Standish. • Plymouth Bay way outside the domain of the Virginia Company. • Became squatters without legal right to land & specific authority to establish a govt.

  35. The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620

  36. The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620 • Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship. • Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude govt. and submit to majority rule. • Signed by 41 adult males. • Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings.

  37. That First Year…. • Winter of 1620-1621 • Only 44 out of the original 102 survived. • None chose to leave in 1621 when the Mayflower sailed back. • Fall of 1621  First “Thanksgiving.” • Colony survived with fur [especially beaver], fish, and lumber. • Plymouth stayed small and economically unimportant. • 1691  only 7,000 people • Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony.

  38. Sources of Puritan Migration

  39. The MA Bay Colony • 1630  1,000 people set off in 11 well-stocked ships • Established a colony with Boston as its hub. • “Great Migration” of the 1630s • Turmoil in England [leading to the English Civil War] sent about 70,000 Puritans to America. • 20,000 came to MA • John Winthrop: 1st governor of Massachusetts. • Believed that he had a “calling” from God to lead. • Served as governor or deputy-governor for 19 years.

  40. Land Division inSudbury, MA: 1639-1656

  41. Characteristics of New England Settlements • Low mortality  average life expectancy was 70 years of age. • Many extended families. • Average 6 children per family. • Average age at marriage: • Women – 22 years old • Men – 27 years old.

  42. Patriarchy Authoritarian male father figures controlled each household. Patriarchal ministers and magistrates controlled church congregations and household patriarchs.

  43. Puritan “Rebels” • Young, popular minister in Salem. • Argued for a full break with the Anglican Church. • Condemned MA Bay Charter. • Did not give fair compensation to Indians. • Denied authority of civil govt. to regulate religious behavior. • 1635  found guilty of preaching newe & dangerous opinions and was exiled. Roger Williams

  44. Rhode Island • 1636  Roger Williams fled there. • MA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him to England to prevent him from founding a competing colony. • Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI • Universal manhood suffrage  later restricted by a property qualification. • Opposed to special privilege of any kind  freedom of opportunity for all. • RI becomes known as the “Sewer” because it is seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and religious dissenters  More liberal than any other colony!

  45. Puritan “Rebels” • Intelligent, strong-willed,well-spoken woman. • Threatened patriarchal control. • Antinomialism [direct revelation] • Means “against the law.” • Carried to logical extremes Puritan doctrine of predestination. • Holy life was no sure sign of salvation. • Truly saved didn’t need to obey the law of either God or man. AnneHutchinson

  46. Anne Hutchinson’s Trial • 1638  she confounded the Puritan leaders for days. • Eventually bragged that she had received her beliefs DIRECTLY from God. • Direct revelation was even more serious than the heresy of antinomianism. WHY?? • Puritan leaders banished her  she & her family traveled to RI and later to NY. • She and all but one member of her family were killed in an Indian attack in Westchester County. • John Winthrop saw God’s hand in this!

  47. New England Spreads Out

  48. The Pequot Wars: 1636-1637 • Pequots  verypowerful tribein CT river valley. • 1637  PequotWar • Whites, withNarragansettIndian allies,attacked Pequotvillage on Mystic River. • Whites set fire to homes & shot fleeing survivors! • Pequot tribe virtually annihilated an uneasy peace lasted for 40 years.