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Mongols. Eurasia. Steppe Vast belt of dry grassland Little rainfall and extreme temperatures changes Served as a land trade route Home to nomadic people Western steppe- Hittites and Aryans Eastern Steppe- Huns, Turks and Mongols. Nomadic people. Pastoralists -

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  • Steppe
    • Vast belt of dry grassland
    • Little rainfall and extreme temperatures changes
  • Served as a land trade route
  • Home to nomadic people
    • Western steppe- Hittites and Aryans
    • Eastern Steppe- Huns, Turks and Mongols
nomadic people
Nomadic people
  • Pastoralists-
    • herded domesticated animals- Horse will be very important
    • follow seasonal patterns that included returning to same campsites
    • Lived in Yurts- portable felt tents
  • Lived and travel in clans
    • Kinship groups that were descendants from a common ancestor
  • Often fought over grassland and water rights
    • Sometimes clans would join together to fight a common enemy
Leadership in Mongol clans
    • Elected by free males
    • Held position as long as they could keep it.
  • Superb horsemen and archers
  • Could of become a world power early on, if had not had
    • Rivalries between tribes and clans that kept them from unifying
    • Fighting kept them fairly isolated from the rest of the world
temujin genghis khan
TemujinGenghis Khan
  • 1200 will unite the Mongol clans
  • Assumed the title of Genghis Khan (Chingiss Kahn)
  • Universal leader
    • Will lead Mongols for 21 years
  • First goal to invade China- later the Islamic region west of Mongolia
  • By 1221 Central Asia under Mongol control
  • Largest empire the world had ever seen
characteristics of genghis khan
Characteristics of Genghis Khan
  • Brilliant organizer
  • Gift Strategist
  • Adopted new weapons and technologies used by his enemies
    • Bows & arrows
    • Bronze cannons
    • Iron mace
    • hatchets
Military divided into units called tumens
  • Used cruelty as a weapon- terrify his enemies into surrendering
    • Battle field tactic
      • Pretend to retreat and then send in the heavy cavalry on the flanks
  • Very superstitious
  • Only thing he feared was dogs
Genghis Khan’s Imperial rule
    • Legal code
      • To end division and quarrels between clans
    • Promote growth and trade
    • Religious tolerance
    • Overall peace to Asia
      • Once established
Empire so large that it was split into hordes
    • Small independent empires
      • Golden Horde
        • Modern day Russia
  • Empire allow for exchange of goods, ideas and culture from one distant region to another
    • Mongols had been illiterate and nomadic but after Genghis Khan’s conquest they assimilated into the cultures of the people they had defeated
the mongols golden horde
The MONGOLS [“Golden Horde”]
  • Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws:
    • If you do not pay homage, we will take your prosperity.
    • If you do not have prosperity, we will take your children.
    • If you do not have children, we will take your wife.
    • If you do not have a wife, we will take your head.
  • Used cruelty as a weapon --> some areas never recovered from Mongol destruction!
key to mongolian victories
Key to Mongolian victories
  • Stirrup- enable mounted warrior to stand , turn and shoot arrows behind him
genghis khan death
Genghis Khan death
  • Dies from illness in 1227
  • Grave is unmark to prevent enemies from desecrating the body
Mongol empire
    • They did not attempt to force a unified religion or way of life
    • Their infrastructure allowed for the exchange and spread of ideas
      • It just was not their own culture
  • Ogadai will succeed his father
  • Became known as the GreatKhan
  • Upon his death empire is divided into 4 large Khanates
    • Each ruled by a descendant of Genghis Khan
  • 1260 AD Kublai Khan will declare himself to be the Great Khan
golden horne
Golden Horne
  • Russia
    • Invaded by Mongols in 13th century
    • Russia had been a number of small kingdoms
      • Centered on trading cities
      • Russia princes refused to cooperate and were individually remove by Mongols
    • Result of Mongol tribute will be the Russian peasants reduced to serfdom
    • Moscow will thrive because their princes collect the tribute for the Mongols and because it was seat of the Orthodox church
  • Impact of Mongol rule of Russia
    • Isolation of Russia from Western Europe
    • Will not experience the Renaissance and Reformation
Ilkhan Khanate
    • Muslim heartland
    • End the Abbasid dynasty
      • Destroy Baghdad and other major Islamic focal points
    • Bring about the decline of Seljuk Turks
mongol peace
Mongol Peace
  • Mongol Peace
    • Mongols imposed stability and law across Eurasia.
    • Trade will increase between Europe and Asia
    • Ideas and inventions will spread into Europe
  • Historians believe that bubonic plague was first spread by Mongols
    • Kill more with the plague than through warfare
kublai khan
Kublai Khan
  • Founder of Yuan Dynasty
  • Important because it will unite China for first time in 300 years
  • Open China to greater foreign contacts and trade
Kublai Khan will spend most of his life in China
  • Will enjoy living luxurious manner of a Chinese emperor
  • Will even dress Chinese
  • Built new capital at Beijing
    • According to Marco Polo “the largest that was ever seen”
Yuan social order
    • Mongols
    • Muslims & central Asian allies rank below Mongols
  • Kublai Khan maintain separation of Mongols and Chinese by
    • Keeping military forces separate
    • Allowing only women of nomadic families in imperial harem
    • Forbidden intermarriage of Mongols and Chinese
    • Not allowing Chinese scholars to learn Mongol script
Mongols will continue the policy of religious tolerance
  • Status of merchants and artist will improve under the Yuan dynasty
  • Mongols will not use the examination system
    • To keep the scholar-gentry from gaining too much power
  • Mongolian women
    • will not adopt the Chinese practices of foot binding
    • Will remain somewhat independent
    • Retain right of property
invasion of japan
Invasion of Japan
  • Will attempt to extend rule to Japan
  • Will send the largest seaborne invasion force in history (up to WWII)
    • Fought for 53 days to a standstill
    • 54th day a storm with strong winds will hit and devasted the Kublai Khan’s fleet
  • Kamikaze- divine wind that will save Japan
Mongols in China have little in common with Chinese subjects
    • Mongols live apart and even obey different laws
    • Mongols will hold most of the highest government posts
    • Many jobs also given to foreigners
      • Mongols felt that foreigners were more trustworthy because they had no local loyalties
marco polo
Marco Polo
  • Most famous European to visit China
    • Venetian trader
  • Greatly respected by Kublai Khan
    • Sent on special mission around empire
  • Will later describes his adventures in a book about China
    • Book will be an instant hit but many will not believe a word of it.
    • Believed it was just tall tales
      • Examples- black stones that burn (coal)
kublai khan1
Kublai Khan
  • Dies in 1294 AD at the age of 80
  • Yuan dynasty will continue for 74 more years
  • Problems with famine, flood, disease and economic problems
    • At one point over 4 different Khans will take the title in 18 years
  • 1368 Ming Dynasty will begin