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Second Phase Chinese Civil War. By: Tony. Context. Monarchy overthrow  Internal Strife/Weak Government First Phase – 1927 to 1937 Nationalists (GMD) winning vs Communists (CCP) Second Phase – 1937 to 1945 Nationalists open warfare vs Japanese Third Phase – 1945 to 1949

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Monarchy overthrow Internal Strife/Weak Government

First Phase – 1927 to 1937

Nationalists (GMD) winning vs Communists (CCP)

Second Phase – 1937 to 1945 Nationalists open warfare vsJapanese

Third Phase – 1945 to 1949

Communists win

  • Headed by Chiang Kai-Shek (see previous page)
  • Wanted to unite China under Nationalist banner
  • Nationalists were initially winning
  • Nationalists were allied to the Communists, but later Chiang Kai-Shek was wary of the communists threat and purged many of them
  • Nationalists had support of landlords and people in cities (upper class) and most of their capital came from the citiesa
  • Had many benefits; efficiency and had support of West
  • Headed by Mao-Ze-Dong (see previous page) and soldiers were treated well and felt part of the cause
  • Communists had support of the rural population (lower, middle class)
  • Large army yet unequipped with no help from the West
  • Communists fought the war against the Japanese through guerrilla warfare perceived as more effective than open warfare
second phase peace treaty
Second Phase – Peace Treaty
  • Second Phase 1937-1945
  • Peace Treaty between Nationalists and Communists to fight off Imperial Japan
  • An uneasy alliance was formed; which had little effect as there was little cooperation between Nationalists and Communists
  • Japanese took over city by city; severely crippling potential Nationalist capital
methods of warfare
Methods of warfare
  • Nationalist leader Chiang Kai Shek confronted Japanese full on, leading to heavy troop losses
  • Communist leader Mae Ze Dong was achieving gains through guerrilla warfare; at one point even mobilized up to 5 million soldiers
rise of popularity of mao
Rise of popularity of Mao
  • Mao’s guerrilla warfare tactics proved successful
  • Mao’s land reform policy of giving farm land to thousands of hungry and starving farmers added to the momentum
  • Mao offered mistreated Nationalist troops allegiance to the Communist cause. Many agreed.
  • At the end of World War 2; while Nationalists were extremely weakened and Communists were extremely popular the Nationalists and Communists resumed fighting
  • Communists defeated Nationalists in various battles
  • Nationalists fled to Taiwan where they still reside