Chemistry of life
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Chemistry of Life. Chemistry of Life. Matter -- anything that has MASS and takes up SPACE EVERYTHING is made of matter. Chemistry of Life. Atoms – the SMALLEST particle that can exist and still be considered matter All LIVING and NONLIVING things are made of atoms.

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Chemistry of life1
Chemistry of Life

  • Matter -- anything that has MASS and takes up SPACE

  • EVERYTHING is made of matter


Chemistry of life2
Chemistry of Life

  • Atoms – the SMALLEST particle that can exist and still be considered matter

  • All LIVING and NONLIVING things are made of atoms


Atoms have three components
Atoms -- have three components

  • ELECTRONS -- negatively charged

  • PROTONS -- positively charged; found in nucleus

  • NEUTRONS -- neutral; found in nucleus


Chemistry of life

Electrons

Nucleus

Protons & Neutrons

Energy Levels


Chemical reactions
Chemical Reactions

  • Chemical reactions occur when bonds are FORMED or BROKEN.

  • This causes them to recombine into different substances.


Chemical reactions1
Chemical Reactions

  • Metabolism

    • All reactions that occur in an organisms.

  • These reactions break down and build molecules important to life.


Chemical reactions2
Chemical Reactions

  • Mixture:

    • A combination of a substance in which the individual components contain their own property.


Chemistry of the cell
Chemistry of the Cell

  • Solution:

    • A mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in another substance.

  • Solvent:

    • A substance that can dissolve other substances

  • Solute:

    • The substance that is dissolved


Chemistry of life
pH

  • Chemical reactions also depend on the pH of the environment within the organism.

  • pH-

    • A measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.


Chemistry of life
pH

  • The scale goes from 0-14

    • 0 being the most acidic

    • 14 being the most basic


Chemistry of life3
Chemistry of Life

  • Elements -- a substance that is made of only ONE kind of ATOM


Reading periodic table
Reading Periodic Table

Element

Hydrogen

Atomic

Number

1

H

Symbol


The human body
The Human Body

Oxygen - 65%

Carbon - 18.5

Nitrogen - 3%

Other - 1.5%

Phosphorus - 1%

Calcium - 1.5%


Major elements of life
Major Elements of Life

  • C = Carbon

  • H = Hydrogen

  • O = Oxygen

  • P = Phosphorus

  • K = Potassium


Major elements of life1
Major Elements of Life

  • I = Iodine

  • N = Nitrogen

  • S = Sulfur

  • Ca = Calcium


Major elements of life2
Major Elements of Life

  • Fe = Iron

  • Mg = Magnesium

  • Na = Sodium

  • Cl = Chlorine


Chemistry of life4
Chemistry of Life

  • Compounds – matter that is made of more than one kind of ATOM

  • Compounds are made by atoms sharing or taking ELECTRONS from other atom


Inorganic compounds
Inorganic Compounds

  • Water ( H2O )

  • Each molecule is made of two HYDROGEN atoms and one OXYGEN atom



Why is water so important to agriculture
Why is water so important to agriculture?

  • At least 75% of animal body mass is water

  • Plants contain 70-80% water

  • Transports nutrients and wastes


Why is water so important to agriculture1
Why is water so important to agriculture?

  • Dissolves compounds -- “Universal Solvent”

  • Regulates body temperature in animals

  • Provides structure for plants


Organic compounds
Organic Compounds

  • Organic Compounds contain carbon.

  • Carbon forms the structural backbone of all living things.


Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates

Organic Compounds that contain:

Carbon

Hydrogen

Oxygen

They provide energy


Carbohydrates1
Carbohydrates

Three Types

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Polysaccharides


Carbohydrates2
Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides

simple SUGAR

contain C6H12O6

GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE, AND GALACTOSE


Carbohydrates3
Carbohydrates

Disaccharides

double SUGAR

contain two RINGS

SUCROSE and LACTOSE


Carbohydrates4
Carbohydrates

Polysaccharides

complex CARBOHYDRATES

made of RINGSof SUGAR

STARCH, CELLULOSE, and GLYCOGEN


Proteins
Proteins

Basic building material for all living things.

Used forSTRUCTURE andFUNCTION

Made of H, O, C, N


Structure of proteins
Structure of Proteins

Amino Acids – building BLOCKS

20 different kinds – all have the same elements but in different amounts

Polypeptides – chains of AMINO ACIDS Joined by peptide bonds

Proteins – chains of POLYPEPTIDES

Used to make SKIN, HAIR, MUSCLE, ORGANS, etc.


Lipids
Lipids

FATTY molecules

used to store ENERGY

Made of long chains of H & C followed by COOH

Do not DISSOLVE in WATER

Lipids have less OXYGEN than carbohydrates

Examples of Lipids are: FATS, OILS, AND WAXES


Nucleic acids
Nucleic Acids

Store INFORMATIONthat controls CELL activities

Made of a PHOSPHATE a SUGAR, and a BASE.


Examples of nucleic acids are
Examples of Nucleic Acids are:

  • DNA :

    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid

  • The master copy of an organisms information code.

  • Instructions to form all of an organisms structural proteins


Examples of nucleic acids are1
Examples of Nucleic Acids are:

  • RNA :

    • Ribonucleic Acid

  • This forms a copy of the DNA for use in making protein.