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  1. California Maritime Academy EPO 220 Diesel Engineering I Fuel Injection & Combustion Chamber Design Material Compiled by Robert Jackson

  2. Diesel Engine Combustion Chambers • Combustion chambers are designed to promote air turbulence which helps atomize the fuel in preparation for combustion. • Modern diesel engines typically utilize an open type combustion chamber. • Though not commonly used today, the following chamber designs were utilized in the past to promote complete combustion: • Turbulence Chambers • Precombustion Chambers • Energy Cell or Air Cell Chambers

  3. Air Turbulence in the Combustion ChamberA- Intake Stroke; B-Compression Stroke; C-Power Stroke; Exhaust Stroke

  4. Diesel Engine With Open Combustion Chamber

  5. Typical Open Combustion Chamber Design

  6. Hemispherical Type Open Combustion Chamber

  7. M Type Open Combustion Chamber

  8. Precombustion Chamber

  9. Precombustion Chamber • The precombustion chamber is connected to the piston clearance volume by one or more passages. • This chamber may be located in the head or cylinder wall. • A precombustion chamber will hold 25 to 40 percent of the total clearance volume. • Because of the larger surface area of the combustion chamber, heat losses are increased and thermal efficiency decreases. • The precombustion chamber promotes smooth combustion and improves engine performance at low loads.

  10. Mercedes DieselWith Precombustion Chamber & Glow Plug

  11. Removable Injector plus Precombustion Chamber Combination(Caterpillar Tractor Co.)

  12. SEMT Pielstick Variable Geometry Combustion Chamber

  13. Turbulence Chamber

  14. Turbulence Chamber • The turbulence chamber is very similar in design to the precombustion chamber. The principal difference between the two designs is the amount of chamber volume compared to the clearance volume of the main combustion chamber. • Engines utilizing turbulence chambers have very small clearance volumes. • When the piston reaches TDC virtually all of the available air has been compressed in the turbulence chamber. • The chambers are usually spherical in shape and are incorporated into either the head or cylinder. • The opening through which the air must pass becomes smaller as the piston reaches the top of the stroke, thereby increasing the velocity of the air in the chamber.

  15. Waukesha Engine Turbulence Chamber

  16. Lanova Energy Cell

  17. The Lanova Energy Cell • The energy cell is a combination of the precombustion chamber and turbulence chamber designs. • The Lanova system has two rounded combustion spaces shaped like a figure 8. • The fuel is injected in a pencil stream, passing directly across the narrow throat of the combustion chamber so most of the fuel enters the energy cell. • Most of the fuel entering the energy cell is trapped in the small inner cell, but a small portion passes into the outer cell where it meets with a sufficient quantity of super-heated air to explode violently.

  18. Combustion Sequence in the Lanova Energy Cell SystemThe nozzle injects fuel in a pencil stream which penetrates into the energy cell. Partial combustion takes place inside the energy cell radically raising cell pressure. High pressure gasses exiting the energy cell through the venturi throat cause high turbulence levels in the main combustion chamber promoting good combustion.

  19. Pintle & Hole Type Fuel Injector Nozzle

  20. Operation Of Fuel Injection Nozzle

  21. Angular Difference Between Needle Face & Injector Seat

  22. Fuel Injectors

  23. Fuel Line Pressure (lower line) & Needle Lift Diagrams • At high load • At low load

  24. Injector Nozzle Tip for the Mak

  25. Mak Fuel Injector With Oil Cooling

  26. Sulzer RND-M InjectorNon-Recirculating Type, Water Cooled

  27. Fuel Injector Hold Down Bolt Tensioning Washer Disk Stack

  28. Sulzer Fuel Injectors

  29. Low Sac Volume Fuel Injection Nozzle Tip

  30. Injector Tip Advances To Minimize Sac Volume

  31. Port & HelixHigh-Pressure Fuel Pump

  32. Effective Stroke of the Port & Helix Pump

  33. Port & Helix High-Pressure Fuel PumpIllustration showing pump plunger, barrel, delivery valve, & control rack for adjustment of pump effective stroke

  34. Exploded View of the Port & Helix Fuel Pump

  35. High-Pressure Fuel Pump & Camshaft Follower For Mak 6M 322 Diesel Engine

  36. High-Pressure Fuel Pump Timing

  37. Balance Delivery Valve Utilized on Mak 6M 322 Diesel Engine

  38. MAN B&W K98MC Slow-Speed Crosshead Diesel EngineBore 980mmStroke 2660mm94 Rpm Maximum6 to 12 Cylinders5,720 kW Per Cylinder 12 Cylinder Engine Produces 68,640 kW(93,360 BHP)

  39. MAN B&WSlow-Speed Diesel EngineHigh-Pressure Fuel Pump

  40. MAN B&W Fuel Pumps

  41. B&W Slow-Speed Diesel Engine High-Pressure Fuel Pump With Variable Injection Timing

  42. B&W High-Pressure Fuel Pump

  43. B&W High-Pressure Fuel Pump

  44. Fuel Pump Shock Absorber

  45. The Modern Slow Speed Diesel Engine

  46. Sulzer RTA84C Diesel Engine

  47. Sulzer Fuel Pump Placement