Motivation and Emotion. Nolan Simmons, Linda Yu, Madison Aichele. Motivation. Motivation : a feeling or idea that causes us to act toward a goal. Motivation Theories. Drive Reduction Theory : a theory that our behavior is motivated by biological needs (food, water, shelter)
Nolan Simmons, Linda Yu, Madison Aichele
Motivation: a feeling or idea that causes us to act toward a goal.
Drive Reduction Theory: a theory that our behavior is motivated by biological needs (food, water, shelter)
homeostasis: a balanced internal state
Different drives include:
Primary drives: biological needs
Secondary drives: learned needs (money)
Arousal Theory: states that we seek an optimum level of excitement or arousal.
Everyone has a different need for excitement level and we are motivated by activities that will help us achieve this level.
People with high optimum levels of arousal will be drawn to high-excitement behaviors or activities.
People with low optimum levels of arousal will be satisfied with less exciting and less risky activities.
Arousal Theory cont..
Yerkes Dodson Law: We might perform well at an easy task with a very high level of arousal, but the same high level of arousal will prevent us from performing well on a difficult task.
Incentive Theory: we associate some stimuli with rewards and others with punishment, and we are motivated to seek the rewards.
Incentives: stimuli that we are drawn to due to learning
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - Abraham Maslow
Tier 1: Physiological needs: to satisfy drives for hunger, thirst, and sex
Tier 2: Safety needs: to feel safe, secure, and out of danger
Tier 3: Belongingness and love needs: to be accepted and belong
Tier 4: Esteem needs: to achieve and to gain approval and recognition
Tier 5: Self-Actualization needs: to fulfill your unique potential
Achievement Motivation: examines our desires to master complex tasks and knowledge and to reach personal goals
Extrinsic Motivation: motivation by external rewards (i.e., grades, salary)
Intrinsic Motivation: motivation by internal rewards (i.e., enjoyment, satisfaction)
Emotion: Experiential and subjective responses to certain internal and external stimuli.
James-Lange theory: event → arousal → emotion
Cannon-Bard theory: event → arousal + emotion
Two-factor theory: event→ arousal + label → emotion
Facial feedback hypothesis: expressions amplify our emotions by activating muscles associated with specific states → the muscles signal the body to respond
Ex. Smile → feel happier
Catharsis: emotional release; releasing negative energy will calm aggressive tendencies
Feel-good, do-good phenomenon: increased willingness to help others when in a good mood
Adaptation-level phenomenon: tendency to judge various stimuli relative to those previously experienced
Relative deprivation: perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Can affect our mood. Stressors are everyday events or situations that challenge us in subtle ways.