Optikai sugázrás hatása az emberi bőrre és szemre. Optikai sugárzás tartományai. UV-C 100 – 280 nm UV-B 280 – 315 nm UV-A 315 – 400 nm Látható 380 – 780 nm IR-A 780 nm – 1,4 um IR-B 1,4 um – 3,0 um IR-C 3,0 um – 1 mm . Emberi bőr típusok. Fotobiológiai egység. Minimalis erythem dózis.
Minimalis erythem dózis
1 SED is equivalent to an erythemal effective radiant exposure of 100 J⋅m-2 .
“The ambient diurnal exposure on a clear sky summer day in Europe
is approximately 30 SED to 40 SED.”
Photokeratoconjunctivitis. An inflammatory response of the cornea and conjunctiva following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Wavelengths shorter than 315 nm (UV-B and UV-C) are most effective in causing photokeratoconjunctivitis. The peak of the action spectrum is at approximately 270 nm. The Bunsen-Roscoe (reciprocity) relation holds to about 4 hours.
UV Photocataractogenesis. A clouding (opacification) of the lens resulting from life-long exposure to excessive ultraviolet radiant energy incident upon the lens. Wavelengths between 295 nm and 325 nm have been identified as the most hazardous, but some laboratory in vitro evidence exists for cataractogenesis at longer wavelengths in the UV-A spectral region.
UV Erythema and Delayed Effects upon the Skin. Erythema (reddening of the skin), or "sunburn," is produced as an acute effect of overexposure to UV radiation, with UV-C radiation producing the most severe effects. The Bunsen-Roscoe relation holds to 4-5 hours.
Blue Light Photoretinitis. A photochemically induced retinal injury resulting from radiation exposure at wavelengths primarily between 400 nm and 500 nm. This damage mechanism dominates over retinal thermal injury for times exceeding approximately 10 seconds and is responsible for solar eclipse retinal injury. Eye movements limit retinal exposures, and exposure duration greater than 10 000 s is not considered additive for assessments.
Retinal Thermal Injury ("Retinal Burn"). Retinal injury caused by brief, intense radiant exposure of the retina from wavelengths in the Retinal Hazard Region (approximately 400 nm to 1200-1400 nm; visible plus IR-A) within which the normal ocular media transmit optical radiation to the retina. The maximum assessment time is taken as 10 s. NOTE: In some cases a blue-light photoretinitis is also termed a "retinal burn."
Infrared "Heat" Cataract Hazard. A clouding (opacification) of the lens resulting from life-long exposure to excessive near-infrared radiant energy producing an elevated temperature of the lens.