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Arab Nationalism

Arab Nationalism

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Arab Nationalism

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  1. Arab Nationalism

  2. Origins of Arab Nationalism • “Young Turks” seized remains of Ottoman Empire • Build nation for “Turks” • Sought to Turkicize Arabs • Arabs developed own nationalist movement • Sought nation for Arabs

  3. Satical-Husri

  4. Notions of Nation • British & French: heterogeneous peoples united over centuries by capitalist economy and state institutions • German: people who share culture and language who naturally should become a state • Al Husri: situation of Arabs more resembles Germany

  5. Bacth Party:Michel Aflaq( Christian )Salah Baytar( Sunni Muslim )

  6. Arab Nationalism • Nation = Arab language & culture • Secular: Muslim and Christian Arabs • Anti-Imperialist • Non-aligned: neither U.S. nor U.S.S.R. • Planned development & economy • Rhetoric of “socialism” • Pro private property & anti-Communist

  7. United Arab Republic

  8. Gamal Nasser

  9. Hafez Assad

  10. Bashar al- Assad

  11. Saddam Hussein

  12. MoammarQaddafi

  13. 1967 War with Israel • End of Arab Nationalism • Popular turn to Islam

  14. Islamism

  15. Islamism: Background • Revival movements 19th century peripheral areas • Reform / modernist movements 1900 – 1960s – today urban centers “Salafiyya” or “Salafi” movements (back to origins/ancestors) sometimes support Islamist movements

  16. Revival Movements • 18th century: Abd al Wahhab • 1744: alliance with Ibn Saud • 1924: founding of Saudi Arabia • Abd al Aziz Saud & tribal & Wahhabist fighters

  17. 19th Cent. Revival Movements • Nigeria • Bengal • Algeria • Lybia • Somalia • Sudan: Mahdi

  18. Reform / Modernist Islamlate 19th early 20th Centuries • Jamal ad-Din al Afghani • Mohammed Abduh • Qassem Amin • Rashid Rida

  19. Reform / Modernist Islamlate 19th early 20th Centuries • Revive and “modernize” Islam • Strengthen Muslim community • Fight against Western colonialism

  20. Al Afghani

  21. MohammedAbduh

  22. Qassem AminThe Emancipation of Women

  23. HudaSharaawi:Egyptian feminist movement 1920s

  24. Rashid Rida

  25. Salafiyya Movements • Orthodox “Modern” Islam of educated • Nationalist movements • Opposed to: “popular” Islam • Superstitions • Saint “worship: • Trance dancing • sorcery

  26. Islamism • Muslim Brotherhood (Egypt) • Hamas (Palestinians) • Hizballah (Lebanon – Shi’i) • Khomeini – Ahmadinejad (Iran) • F.I.S. (“Islamic Salvation Front” Algeria) • Taliban (Afthanistan) • Al Qaeda (international)

  27. Muslim Brotherhood 1928 - • Hassan al-Banna • Killed 1948 • Sayyid Qutb • U.S. 1948 – 1950 • arrested 1954 and tortured • Released 1964 • Arrested 1965 hung 1966 • Sheikh Kishk • Arrested 1978 • Released 1982 died 1996

  28. Hassan al-Banna

  29. Muslim Brotherhood • Sacred history: now living sacred history • Diagnosis: social problems, colonization, tyranny stem from turn away from religion • Solution: return to purified religion; government of God

  30. Ikhwan: Sacred History • Prophet & companions: revolutionaries • Medina: golden age of justice • Muslim conquests: result of piety • Decline & colonization: Muslims abandoned Islam • Renaissance: return to “pure” Islam

  31. SayyidQutb at Colorado State 1948

  32. Sayyid Qutb • Jahilya: state of ignorance & immorality before Prophet & Islam • ruler is “pharoah” • Hijra: emigration from corrupt society • Ikwan Muslimin: brotherhood of vanguard “true” Muslims • Takfir: tyrants declared “apostates” • Jihad: struggle against inner jahiliya & jahiliya tyrants – duty of all Muslims

  33. Sayyid Qutb at trailshung in 1966

  34. SheikhKishk

  35. Jalal Al e AhmadWestoxication

  36. Euromania Al-e Ahmad wrote that Satan’s incarnation is the machine, manufactured in the West, which enslaves those who consume its products. Even more powerful forms of enslavement come from the superficial cravings Westernization implants in Iranian minds and the way Iranians come to see and know themselves through the gaze of Europeans.

  37. Euromania “I say that West-stricken-ness is like cholera or frostbite. But no. It’s at least as bad as sawflies in the wheat fields. Have you ever seen how they infest wheat? From within.”

  38. Euromania Al-e Ahmad compares iranians to the crow in a popular Sufi folktale: The crow sees a partridge walk by and is amazed at the measured elegance fo the partridge’s gait. Afgter long and painstaking practice, the crow forgets how to walk like a crow, but never learns to walk like a partridge. The Euromanic “has no personality… he is an object with no authentic origin.”

  39. Ali Shariati:Islam & Marxism

  40. Ali Shariati Combined Marxist critique of alienation and class exploitation with Islam, to offer “liberation theology”-like outlook: resistance to tyranny, Westernization, and elite privilege is religious duty, symbolized by martyrdom of Hussain.

  41. Ayatollah Khomeini

  42. Palestine P.L.O.: secular nationalist

  43. Palestine intifada

  44. Palestine Hammas: Islamist derived fromMuslimn Brotherhood

  45. Algeria 1990s Civil War

  46. Algeria • F.I.S.: Islamist party won local elections would win national elections elections cancelled took up arms • Civil War: nearly 100,000 killed

  47. Afghanistan

  48. Afghanistan • Taliban: Islamist grew from war against Soviets (with U.S. support) Sayyid Qutb & other sources