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Density. (a) define the term density. Density is defined as mass per unit volume. . What is density ?. Density is defined as mass per unit volume. . Archimedes ` principle. Archimedes' principle is a law that explains buoyancy or upthrust . It states that:

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what is density

Density is defined as mass per unit volume.

Whatisdensity?
  • Density is defined as mass per unit volume.
archimedes principle
Archimedes` principle
  • Archimedes' principle is a law that explains buoyancy or upthrust. It states that:
  • When a body is completely (or partially) immersed in a fluid it experiences an upthrust
  • or an apparent loss in weight
  • which is equal to the weight of fluid displaced.
archimedes principle1
Archimedes` principle
  • An object experiences upthrust due to the fact that the pressure exerted by a fluid on the lower surface of a body being greater than that on the top surface.
  • Pressure increases with depth.
  • Pressure, p is given by p = hρg, where:
    • h is the height of the fluid columnρ (rho) is the density of the fluidg is the acceleration due to gravity
archimedes principle2
Archimedes` principle
  • On the figure on the left, a solid block is immersed completely in a fluid with density ρ.
  • The pressure at the bottom of the cube is
  • Pb = ρgh2
  • And at the top
  • Pb = ρgh1
archimedes principle3
Archimedes` principle
  • The force on the bottom of the block is
  • F=pa
  • F=ρgh2 a
  • And on the top
  • F=ρgh21a
  • The difference (d) in the force exerted on the top and bottom surfaces is given byd = h2aρg – h1aρg
  • d = (h2 – h1)aρg
  • But (h2– h1) is the height of the block.
  • So, (h2 – h1)a is the volume of the solid block, V.
  • d= Vρg
  • ∴ Upthrust = Vρg
archimedes principle4
Archimedes` principle
  • In any situation, the volume of fluid displaced is considered to calculate upthrust.
  • because (h2 – h1) is the height of the solid block only when it is completely immersed.
  • Furthermore, the pressure difference of the fluid acts only on the immersed part of an object.
archimedes principle5
Archimedes` principle
  • Now, moving back to Vρg. Since V is the volume of fluid displaced, then the product of V, ρ and g is the weight of the fluid displaced. So, we can say that
  • Upthrust= Weight of the fluid displacedCompare this conclusion with the statement above summarising Archimedes' principle. Are they the same? Well, not totally. The “apparent loss in weight” was not mentioned in the explanation.
archimedes principle6
Archimedes` principle
  • In the figure on the left, there are arrows on the top and bottom of the solid block.
  • The downward arrow represent the weight of the block pulling it downwards and
  • the upward arrow represent the upthrust pushing it upwards.
  • If one were to measure the weight of the solid block when it is immersed in the fluid, he will find that the weight of the block is less than that in air.
  • There is a so-called “apparent loss in weight”, because the buoyant force has supported some of the block’s weight.Weight in air – Upthrust = Weight in fluid Upthrust = Weight in air - Weight in fluid∴ Upthrust = Apparent loss in weight
measuring density
Measuringdensity
  • UsingArchimedesprincipletomeasuredensity
  • Carryouttheexperiment
  • Considertheerrors
exercises
Exercises
  • Read P288
  • P295 q 9&10