Chapter 3 Organization of the Body - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 3 Organization of the Body

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  1. Chapter 3Organization of the Body

  2. Levels of Organization Structural levels of organization: • Cells • Tissues • Organs • Systems • Organism

  3. Levels of Organization—(cont.)

  4. Cells • Common elements: • Cell membrane: allows certain substances in and out • Nucleus: directs activities within cell • Mitochondria: generates energy for the cell • Cytoplasm: watery fluid that fills spaces outside the nucleus

  5. Tissues • Cells make up tissue • Similar cells working together to perform similar tasks • Four types 1. Muscle 2. Connective 3. Nerve 4. Epithelial

  6. Organs • Tissues with common functions form organs • Structures that perform specialized functions • Examples: brain, stomach, heart

  7. Systems • Group of organs forms systems • Each system has own special purpose

  8. Anatomic Position • Body erect, facing forward • Palms facing forward, arms at sides • Left and right from subject’s perspective, not observer’s

  9. Directional Terms • Superior (cranial; cephalic) • Inferior (caudal) • Anterior (ventral) • Posterior (dorsal) • Medial • Lateral • Proximal • Distal • Supine • Prone

  10. Directional Terms—(cont.)

  11. Body Planes

  12. Body Cavities and Divisions • Cranial cavity • Spinal cavity • Thoracic cavity • Abdominopelvic cavity

  13. Body Cavities and Divisions—(cont.)

  14. Body Cavities and Divisions—(cont.) • Regions • Hypochondriac • Epigastric • Lumbar • Umbilical • Hypogastric • Inguinal

  15. Regions of the Spinal Column • Cervical • Thoracic • Lumbar • Sacral • Coccyx

  16. Practice In the anatomic position, is the big toe medial or lateral to the little toe?

  17. Answer In the anatomic position, is the big toe medial or lateral to the little toe? Medial

  18. Practice In the anatomic position, the elbow is _____ to the fingers. distal, proximal, lateral, medial

  19. Answer In the anatomic position, the elbow is proximal to the fingers.

  20. Practice In the anatomic position, the knee is ____ to the hips.

  21. Answer In the anatomic position, the knee is distal to the hips.

  22. Practice • Identify these word elements: • Cerv/o • Myel/o • Inguin/o • Chondr/o • Cyt/o

  23. Answer • Identify these word elements: • Cerv/o—neck • Myel/o—spinal cord • Inguin/o—groin • Chondr/o—cartilage • Cyt/o—cell

  24. Practice • Identify these word elements: • Anter/o • My/o • Neur/o • Proxim/o • Poster/o

  25. Answer • Identify these word elements: • Anter/o—front, anterior • My/o—muscle • Neur/o—nerve, neuron • Proxim/o—near • Poster/o—back, posterior

  26. Practice • Analyze this term: Hypogastric

  27. Answer • Analyze this term: Hypogastric = pertaining to below the stomach

  28. Practice • Analyze this term: Myalgia

  29. Answer • Analyze this term: Myalgia = muscle pain

  30. Practice • Analyze this term: Hypochondriac

  31. Answer • Analyze this term: Hypochondriac—pertaining to below cartilage (this refers to the region below the rib cartilage)

  32. Practice • Analyze this term: Thoracic

  33. Answer • Analyze this term: Thoracic = pertaining to the chest