Organization of the Human Body. ST110 Concorde Career College, Portland. Objectives. Define the terms anatomy, physiology, and pathology Identify the structural units of the body from the chemical level to the organ systems Define chemistry as it relates to cell function
Concorde Career College, Portland
Study of structures of
Study of functions of
structures of the body
Study of diseases and
Imhotep, 2650-2600 BC: recorded some of the earliest information on surgery
Aristotle, 384-322 BC: founder of comparative anatomy
Herophilos, 335-280 BC: “The First Anatomist,” described the diagnostic value of the pulse
Erasistratus, 304-250 BC: contributed to the understanding of the anatomy of the brain, and noted the difference between motor and sensory nerves
Galen, year 129-200 AD: “First Great Anatomist,” his writings remained unchallenged for 1,500 years. Conformed his anatomic findings to theological principles
Andreas Vesalius, 1514-1564: “Father of Modern Anatomy,” corrected Galen’s mistakes. Dissected human cadavers.
Ambroise Pare, 1510-1590: “Greatest Surgeon of the 16th century,” first to ligate vessels to control bleeding after amputations .
The levels of organization progress from the least complex (chemical level) to the most complex (organism level)
Atoms and molecules are referred to as the chemical level
Cells are the smallest living units of structure and function in our body.
Tissues are an organization of many similar cells .
Organs are an organization of several different kinds of tissues.
Systems are varying numbers and kinds of organs working together to perform complex functions.
The body is a unified and complex assembly of interactive components.
When a person is in anatomical position, the body is erect and facing forward with arms supinated at the side and palms of the hands and feet facing forward.
Supine- face up, palms up
Prone- face down, palms down
Superior – toward the head
Inferior – toward the feet
Anterior – front
Posterior – back
Adduct – bring near
Abduct – move away
Medial – toward the midline of the body
Lateral – toward the side of the body
Proximal – nearest the point of origin of one of its parts
Distal – away from the point of origin
Varus – turned inward
Valgus – turned outward
Flexion – bend a joint
Extension – extend a joint
Dorsiflexion – turn the foot up
Plantar flexion – turn the foot down
Rotation – internal/external
Circumduction – circular joint movement
Contralateral– opposite side
Ipsilateral – same side
Equilateral – the same on both sides
Dorsal – toward the posterior surface
Ventral – toward the anterior surface
Volar – pertaining to the palm or sole
When making clinical diagnoses surgeons frequently use quadrants to indicate the area of bodily pain
RUQ – right upper quadrant
RLQ – right lower quadrant
LUQ – left upper quadrant
LLQ – left lower quadrant
Cranial cavity: contains the brain
Spinal Cavity: contains the spinal cord
The membranes that line the cranial and spinal cavities are called the meninges
Thoracic cavity: further subdivided into the…
Abdominopelvic cavity: also called the peritoneal cavity is further subdivided into the…
Separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
Is the most important muscle in breathing
CNS – Central nervous system, consists of the brain and spinal cord
PNS – Peripheral nervous system, comprises the nerves
What is the smallest level of organization in the human body?
What is the smallest structural unit in the body?
Describe anatomical position.
Body is erect, standing with arms at sides, palms
turned forward, head and feet forward
What is “toward the midline of the body?”
What is “nearer the surface?”
What is “back”
Which plane divides the body into front and back portions?
Which plane divides the body into right and left sides?
Which subcavities are contained in the dorsal cavity?
Which subcavities are contained in the ventral cavity?
Thoracic, pleural, abdominopelvic