The TORCH PMT: A close packing, multi-anode, long life MCP-PMT for Cherenkov applications - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

weston
the torch pmt a close packing multi anode long life mcp pmt for cherenkov applications n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The TORCH PMT: A close packing, multi-anode, long life MCP-PMT for Cherenkov applications PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The TORCH PMT: A close packing, multi-anode, long life MCP-PMT for Cherenkov applications

play fullscreen
1 / 19
Download Presentation
The TORCH PMT: A close packing, multi-anode, long life MCP-PMT for Cherenkov applications
130 Views
Download Presentation

The TORCH PMT: A close packing, multi-anode, long life MCP-PMT for Cherenkov applications

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The TORCH PMT:A close packing, multi-anode, long life MCP-PMT for Cherenkov applications James Milnes Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  2. PhotekMCP-PMTs • Photek currently manufacture the fastest PMTs in the world in “analogue mode”: • Whole pulse is captured by an oscilloscope or digitiser • Applications often “single-shot, high intensity”, e.g. Fusion Research • We have several detectors on the diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  3. PhotekMCP-PMTs • MCP-PMTs are also the leading detector for time-resolved photon counting • Jitter in photon arrival measurements ~ 30 ps FWHM • Significantly better for multi-photon events • Excellent fit for Cherenkov-based particle detection • Drawbacks: • Detector Lifetime • Most models are round, single anode and not close-packing Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  4. The TORCH PMT • In November 2012 Photek started the 3-year development of the TORCH (Timing Of internally Reflected CHerenkovphotons) PMT • A collaboration with CERN and the Universities of Oxford and Bristol for the LHCb upgrade • See talk by Maarten Van Dijk, Thursday 14.50 • Technical aims: • A lifetime of 5 C/cm2 of accumulated anode charge or better • A multi-anode readout of 8 x 128 pixels • Close packing on two apposing sides with a fill factor of 88% or better • 53 mm working width within a 60 mm envelope Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  5. The TORCH PMT • Three main aims: • Lifetime • High granularity multi-anode • Square Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  6. 1. MCP-PMT Lifetime • Standard MCP detectors suffer from sensitivity loss after prolonged exposure: • An MCP has a very large surface area • Prolonged electron bombardment of this surface releases material that is ionised • These ions are drawn back to the photocathode and reduce sensitivity • Previous solutions have involved barrier films to prevent the ions reaching the photocathode • Limited success • Lowers MCP efficiency and overall sensitivity Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  7. 1. MCP-PMT Lifetime • Recent technology of ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition) coating on MCP has significantly reduced out-gassing • Two PMT samples produced in 2011: Double-MCP 10 mm diameter working area • One with coated MCPs, One control with standard MCPs • Independently verified by Photek and others: Britting et al (PhotoDet2012), Conneely et al (VCI 2013) Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  8. 1. MCP-PMT Lifetime • ALD coating results in no detectable sensitivity loss after > 5 C/cm2 • Some gain reduction • 6 test devices produced, 2 successfully life tested at Photek, 1 currently being tested at CERN Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  9. 1. MCP-PMT Lifetime • 1st year objective: produce 5 long-life MCP-PMTs • 1st build cycle produced 6 double-MCP devices plus 1 control • ALD also gives major gain enhancement • A 2nd build cycle will attempt to produce a photon counting device with 1 MCP Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  10. 1. MCP-PMT Lifetime • In other respects, coated MCPs behave as normal • Jitter measurement made with 40 ps laser source Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  11. 1. MCP-PMT Lifetime • At the RICH conference in Japan 2013 Albert Lehmann observed substantial gain non-uniformity with ALD coated MCPs • We tried to repeat this observation but could not detect anything significant This region is due to an artefact in our scanning software This region shows the gain suppression after the life test Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  12. 2. High granularity multi-anode • Traditional multi-anode manufacturing uses multiple pins brazed through a solid ceramic • Prone to leaking, also unrealistic for a 128 x 8 array! • Our aim is to use multilayer ceramic with filled vias • Much smaller pad size allows for finer pitch • The pads on this design are 0.75 mm wide on a 0.88 mm pitch Vacuum side Air side Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  13. 2. High granularity multi-anode • Contact made to anodes by Anisotropic Conductive Film (ACF) • ACF are filled with conductive particles which provides electrical interconnection between pads through the film thickness (z-direction) • The conductive particles are distributed far apart thus not electrically conductive in the plane direction (x & y) of the film • PCB could contain front-end electronics and/or connectors Detector ACF PCB z y ACF is insulating in x and y but conducting in z x Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  14. 2. High granularity multi-anode - readout • NINO ASIC • 32 channel differential amplifier/discriminator developed at CERN • 10 ps RMS jitter on the leading edge • >>10 MHz maximum rate • The time-over-threshold technique uses the discriminator output pulse width to determine the event charge • High Performance Time-to-Digital Convertor (HPTDC) • A programmable TDC developed for ALICE time-of-flight RPCs at the LHC • Two modes of 100 ps LSB resolution with 32 channels, or 24.4 ps LSB resolution with 8 channels • Default maximum rate is 2.5 MHz per channel, can be increased beyond 10 MHz using higher logic clock Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  15. 2. High granularity multi-anode • Using a method of charge sharing between pads, we can reduce the channel count and the required granularity of the multi-anode structure • The plot shows the simulated position resolution of a parallel readout, charge sharing detector (using the NINO and HPTDC as readout electronics) in the fine direction of the required 8 × 64 pad layout but aiming for 8 × 128 resolution • The position resolution strongly depends on the NINO threshold and detector gain, with this plot showing a gain of 1 × 106or greater being required to achieve the desired resolution Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  16. 3. Square Tube Development • Square tube manufacturing is new to Photek • Currently developing methods of • Square body brazing • Square MCP locating • Square photocathode sealing • Square anode sealing • Current status: • Producing leak-tight square test cells Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  17. 3. Square Tube Development – Anode Seal Indium seal • Traditional method of sealing anode – welding – is unusable due to close packing requirements • We are experimenting with • Indium seal • Brazing • Fritting 2 inch square body with solid ceramic anode indium sealed Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  18. Summary • TORCH PMT in development at Photek • 3 year development aims to finish in November 2015 • 1st year task complete: To produce long-life demonstrators • 2nd year task on-going: To produce high-granularity multi-anode demonstrator • Final year task: Fully functioning detector Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014

  19. Thank you for listening Workshop on picosecond photon sensors for physics and medical applications, Clermont Ferrand 12th March 2014