Should Japan Continue to Use Nuclear Power? GROUP8 Nancy, Jefrey, Alice 2014.8.7
Nuclear Power in Japan • Japan needs to import about 84% of its energy requirements. • High cost of energy produce(30% energy produce is nuclear power). • Japan is the fourth Nuclear Power produce country.(the U.S.A, France, Swissland)
Japan's energy needs • Japan’s shortage of minerals and energy was a powerful influence on its politics and history in the 20th century. • As it recovered from World War II and rapidly expanded its industrial base it was dependent on fossil fuel imports, particularly oil from the Middle East (oil fuelled 66% of the electricity in 1974). • Due to the oil shock in 1973. At this time, Japan already had a growing nuclear industry. > A major nuclear construction program. • A high priority was given to reducing the country's dependence on oil imports. A closed fuel cycle was adopted to gain maximum benefit from imported uranium.
Nuclear power has been expected to play an even bigger role in Japan's future. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) :Cool Earth 50 energy innovative technology plan in 2008, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) modelled a 54% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 ,leading on to a 90% reduction by 2100. • Lead to nuclear energy contributing about 60% of primary energy in 2100, 10% from renewables and 30% fossil fuels. • In June 2010 METI resolved to increase energy self-sufficiency to 70% by 2030, for both energy security and CO2 emission reduction. Nuclear power would play a big part in implementing the plan.
More recent energy policy 2002-2011: Focus on nuclear Japan's energy policy has been driven by considerations of energy security and the need to minimise dependence on current imports. The main elements regarding nuclear power were: • continue to have nuclear power as a major element of electricity production. • recycle uranium and plutonium from used fuel, and have reprocessing domestically. • steadily develop fast breeder reactors in order to improve uranium utilisation dramatically. • promote nuclear energy to the public, emphasising safety and non-proliferation.
Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear accidents, China, Germany, Switzerland, Israel, Malaysia, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the Philippines are reviewing their nuclear power programs.
Post-Fukushima energy policy changes, 2011 on • In October 2011 the government published a White Paper proposing that “Japan’s dependency on nuclear energy will be reduced as much as possible in the medium-range and long-range future. • Early in 2011, nuclear energy accounted for almost 30% of the country's total electricity production. There were plans to increase this to 41% by 2017, and 50% by 2030. • Try to find the way to increase renewable energy to instead of nuclear power after Fukushima accident .
METI estimated that power generation costs would rise by over JPY 3 trillion ($37 billion) per year, if utilities replaced nuclear energy with thermal power generation. • In February 2012 METI's minister said that electricity costs would need to increase up to 15% while the nuclear plants remained shut. • Problem: • 1.trade deficit, cost of energy produce, energy price • keep going up • 2.losing the international competitiveness. • Effect Japan’s Economy strictly.
In 2014.4, Japan’s cabinet (Abe) approved energy plan reinstating nuclear power. • Poll: 80% of Japan against restart of nuclear plants. Should Japan Continue to Use Nuclear Power?
Geothermal: Renewable Energy • Due to its close proximity to the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc, a convergent boundary of four tectonic plates in the Pacific “Ring of Fire,” Japan is ideally located for geothermal activity. • Three Japanese industrial concerns - Toshiba, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Fuji Electric have a combined total of over half the world market for geothermal turbines • As of 2011, 536 MW Installed Capacity, 0.3% National Energy Production • A new geothermal plant in Kumamoto Prefecture this April 2014, Japan’s first geothermal power plant opened since 1999.