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Everything You Need to Know About Fossil Fuels. *and how to give a good energy presentation. How Fossil Fuels Work. Fossil fuels are burned to produce heat Produces CO 2 and water Greenhouse gas, plant food Also produces C, CO , NO x , SO x Toxic, acid rain, smog

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everything you need to know about fossil fuels

Everything You Need to Know About Fossil Fuels

*and how to give a good energy presentation

how fossil fuels work
How Fossil Fuels Work
  • Fossil fuels are burned to produce heat
  • Produces CO2 and water
    • Greenhouse gas, plant food
  • Also produces C, CO, NOx , SOx
    • Toxic, acid rain, smog
    • Catalytic converters limit this
how fossil fuels work1
How Fossil Fuels Work
  • Coal: C(s) + O2 CO2 + H2O + 25.6 kJ/g
  • Nat’l gas: CH4(g) + O2 CO2 + H2O + 55.5 kJ/g
  • Gasoline: C8H18(l)+ O2 CO2 + H2O + 45.6 kJ/g
  • Propane: C3H8(l/g)+ O2 CO2 + H2O + 50.4 kJ/g
    • Source: Encyclopedia of Earth
how fossil fuels work2
How Fossil Fuels Work
  • Power plants
    • Heat boils water to make steam
    • Steam spins turbine/generator
      • Same as in nuclear power plant
  • Vehicles
    • Fuel burns in cylinder
    • Produces hot gas, which expands
    • LNG has promise
availability
Availability*
  • 82% of total US energy consumption
  • 68% of US electricity production
    • 42% coal, 25% nat’l gas, 1% petroleum**
  • 95.5% of energy in Transportation
    • Need electric cars to avoid
    • *Source: Institute for Energy Research
    • **Source: US Energy Information Administration
capacity
Capacity
  • We could provide 100%
    • We have in the past
cost of electricity
Cost of Electricity
  • Coal
    • Total: 10 cents/kW-hr
    • Fuel: 3 cents/kW-hr
  • Natural Gas
    • Total: 7 cents/kW-hr
    • Fuel: 5 cents/kW-hr
    • Source: Institute for Energy Research
renewability
Renewability
  • Fossil fuels are not renewable
  • Coal: 150-400 yr
    • US has 27% of world supply
    • Russia (18%) and Canada (13%)
    • Source: Institute for Energy Research, Wikipedia
  • Oil: 45-150 yr
    • Physics/ucsd.edu, wikipedia
  • Nat’l Gas: 60-170 yr
    • Wikipedia
independence
Independence
  •  In 2011, 45 percent of US was imported
    • Canada
    • Mexico
    • Saudi Arabia
    • Venezuela
    • Nigeria.
      • Source: Energy Information Administration
  • Domestic supplies could increase with technology
    • Fracking, shale oil, oil sands
environmental impact
Environmental Impact
  • Emissions
    • CO2 (last IPCC says 99% cause of AGW)
    • NOx, SOx
    • Particulate
    • Heavy metal
    • VOC’s
  • Oil spills
    • Drilling , transportation, refining
  • Mining issues
new technologies
New Technologies
  • Fracking may increase our NG supply tremendously
    • Environmental concerns
  • New domestic sources of petroleum
    • Shale oil
    • Tar sands
quote of the day
Quote of the Day
  • “The stone age didn’t end for lack of stone …
  • … and the oil age will end long before the world runs out of oil.”

70’s Saudi oil minister

opinion
Opinion
  • No choice soon enough
  • Economics a big pos.
    • But we’re rich enough to move on
  • Environmental impact big neg.
  • Develop alt energy for job growth
  • Energy independence undervalued
  • Petroleum is undervalued as chemical source
references
References
  • (1) Encyclopedia of Earth
    • http://www.eoearth.org/article/Heat_of_combustion?topic=49557
  • (2) Institute for Energy Research
    • http://www.instituteforenergyresearch.org/energy-overview/fossil-fuels/
  • (3) US Energy Information Administration
    • http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=427&t=3