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Small Animal Care

Small Animal Care

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Small Animal Care

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  1. Small Animal Care Michael Lavoie B.S. Middlesex Community College Veterinary Assistant Program October 2011

  2. Breeds- Dogs • American Kennel Club (AKC) • 155 Breeds of dogs • Seven categories • Working dogs • Sporting dogs • Hounds • Toys • Terriers • Nonsporting dogs • Herding dogs

  3. Breeds to Know- dog • Golden Retriever • Boxer • Poodle • Greyhound • Great Dane • Border Collie • Labrador Retriever • Airdale • Chihuahua • Dachshund

  4. Breeds- Cats • Cat Fanciers’ Association (CFA) • Promotes the health and responsible breeding of cats • 30 different breeds recognized • US= over 70 million cats as pets • Longhair or shorthair • Miscellaneous breeds • The domestic cat • Variety of sizes (5-25 pounds)

  5. Breeds to know- cats • Siamese • Ragdoll • Siberian • Abyssinian • Maine Coon • Scottish Fold • Persian • Devon Rex • Exotic Shorthair

  6. Vaccinations • Provide Protection from common diseases • Cats and dogs receive a vaccine series, or multiple vaccines, in one dose • Vaccine series= series of letters that represent the disease from which the vaccine protects against

  7. Vaccinations- Dog • Start at 6-8 weeks of age • Given multiple times- boosters- to build up the immune system’s protection • Boosters are given approximately 3-4 weeks apart up to 16 weeks of age • Adult vaccinations are scheduled every 1-3 years.

  8. DHLPPC- dog • Most common series in dogs • Known as the “distemper” vaccines • D= distemper • H= hepatitis • L= leptospirosis • P= parainfluenza • P= parvo virus • C= corona virus

  9. Rabies vaccine (RV)- Dogs • Given between 12-16 weeks of age • “rabies on the right” • Valid for 1-3 weeks • Booster yearly or more • Required by law • Be familiar with the laws of the state that you are working in • Rabies tag and certificate given to the owner at the time of vaccine

  10. Other vaccines- dog • Lyme disease • Kennel cough (bordetella) • Become familiar with the vaccines offered by the clinic you are working in

  11. Vaccinations- cats • Start at 6-8 weeks of age • Given multiple times- boosters- to build up the immune system’s protection • Boosters are given approximately 3-4 weeks apart up until 16 weeks of age • Adult vaccination schedule every 1-3 years

  12. FVRCP- Cat • Most common feline vaccine series • The “distemper” series • FVR= Feline Viral Rhinotracetis • C= calicivirus • P= panleukopenia

  13. Rabies vaccine (RV)- cat • Given at 16 weeks of age • “rabies on the right” • Rabies tag and certificate given to the owner at time of vaccine • Familiarize yourself with your state laws • Yearly booster • 3yr vaccine • fibrosarcoma

  14. Other Vaccines- cat • Vaccines against other feline diseases • Feline leukemia (FeLV) • Indoor cats vs. outdoor cats • Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) • Be familiar with vaccines offered by the clinic you are working in

  15. How vaccines are given • Subcutaneous (SQ) • Under the skin • Easier to administer • Most frequently used for vaccines and antibiotics • Intramuscular (IM) • Into a muscle • Placed deeper into the body • Many different sites/muscle groups Be familiar with your clinic’s practices

  16. An injection/vaccination • Need a needle and syringe • Select the proper size of the syringe and needle

  17. Selecting a syringe size • Select a syringe that has a volume slightly larger than the dose being administered • Allows for space to remove any air bubbles that may be drawn into the syringe • Allows space for aspiration • A vaccine is typically 1 mL so a 3 mL syringe would be an appropriate choicem

  18. Selecting a needle size • Needle size or gauge • Patient size • Rate at which the injection is being administered • Thickness of the liquid being administered • Measured by the diameter of the needle • The greater the diameter of the needle, the lower the gauge size • A 20 gauge needle has a greater diameter than the 25 gauge needle

  19. Needle gauge- continued • More rapid administration- lower gauge needle • A thick liquid drug (viscous)- lower gauge needle

  20. Selecting needle length • Type of injection • Depth of the medication will be administered • Short length needle; cats, thin skinned • Longer needle for an IM injection

  21. Some things to remember: • Handle syringes and needles with care • Avoid contamination • Clean injection vial with alcohol prior to inserting needle • Never mix liquids in the same syringe unless otherwise instructed (label) • Label syringes with: • Drug or vaccine type/name • Amount or dose prepared • Date • Patient name • Your initials

  22. Aspiration • Process of a syringe when the plunger is drawn back slightly to make certain no blood vessel has been accidently penetrated prior to administering an injection • Done immediately prior to injecting an medication into a patient, regardless of route • Avoid accidental injection of a medication into the blood stream • “draw back”

  23. Vaccine reconstitution • Select appropriate syringe size and needle gauge/length • Hold vial upside down in one hand while other hand controls the syringe which is pointing upward into the vial • Needle should penetrate the rubber stopper of the vial at the level of medication • Pull the plunger of the syringe back to withdraw the proper amount of contents • Withdraw the needle from the vial • Tap or snap with the finger to remove any air bubbles • Or gently push on the end of the plunger

  24. Vaccine reconstitution- continued • Hold vial in one hand and use your other hand to use the needle to puncture the top of the vial • Put gentle pressure on the plunger to inject the syringe contents into the vial • Once all the liquid is expelled from the needle gently shake the now reconstituted vial • Once all of the powder is mixed well with the liquid you then pull back the plunger to withdraw the contents at the level of the reconstituted vaccine • Withdraw the needle from the vial • Snap or tap with a finger to remove any air bubbles • Or gently push on the end of the plunger • Recap the needle and label the syringe appropriately

  25. Subcutaneous injections (SQ) • Easiest to administer • Most frequently used site for vaccinations • Most common site- loose skin over the base of the neck and between the shoulder blade • Clean site with alcohol • Hold the syringe with one hand and the free hand pinches the skin over the shoulder blades and lift gently to form a triangle or tent • Insert the needle at the base of the tent parallel to the body

  26. SQ injections- continued • Short needle- fully insert • Long needle may only be partially inserted • Once the needle is placed, release the skin • Use your free hand to palpate the needle below the skin (note that the needle has gone through the skin) • Aspirate the end of the plunger • If no blood enters the syringe administer the injection • Withdraw the needle and place in a sharps container • Rub the injection site

  27. Don’t forget… • After the injection PRAISE the patient • Try to keep positive • Distract puppies with treats • Distract kittens with treats • Make it as pleasant as possible especially with young and impressionable patients

  28. SQ Injections

  29. IM injections • Given into a muscle • Many different sites • Quadriceps: the cranial part of the thigh (hind leg) • Hamstrings: mid to distal part of the thigh (hind leg • Epaxials: band of muscles along either side of the spinal column near the back end of the animal

  30. SQ Usually well tolerated Very common site for vaccines No risk of injuring the sciatic nerve IM More rapid onset Patient may react more to injection Risk of injury to sciatic nerve with hamstring/quadriceps injection SQ vs. IM injections

  31. Caution • Caution must be taken with giving an IM injection in the hamstring or quadriceps of the thigh • Sciatic nerve- can be easily injected= irreversable damage and potential paralysis • Alternate sites to avoid pain and trauma

  32. IM injection • Hold the syringe/needle like a dart • Direct the needle below the skin parallel into the muscle mass (be careful not to inject as you are placing the needle) • Aspirate the plunger on the syringe • Inject the substance slowly if no blood is noted • Withdraw the needle and place in a sharps container • Massage the area and praise the patient

  33. Quadriceps/Hamstrings

  34. Epaxial Muscles

  35. Intravenous (IV) injections • Administering directly into a vein • Used for fluids or medications that must rapidly reach high blood levels or if given another route is irritating to the skin or tissue or insufficiently absorbed • Dog: cephalic, lateral saphenous • Cat: medial saphenous, cephalic, femoral

  36. Oral medications • Administration of food or medication by direct placement into the oral cavity • Easily performed (usually) • Liquids, capsules, tablets, paste • Hyperextend the neck • Don’t get bit • Can use your fingers, pill pockets, small amounts of food, syringe, “pill guns”

  37. Rectal medications • Way to administer therapeutics to a patient that cannot tolerate oral medications or to deliver an enema • Enema: given to constipated animals in encourage defecation • Specific fluids, volumes, and tubes to be used • Retention enemas • Valium administration to seizuring patients at home

  38. Sharps • “Sharps”; sharp instruments and equipment that can injure a human or animal • May cause a wound or cut • Possible transmission of a contagious disease due to contamination • Needles, glass, surgical blades • Sharps containers: prevent contamination and spread of disease • Need proper disposal/incineration

  39. Anal glands • Scent glands • Located on either side of the rectum • Sacs that hold small amounts of fluids from a bowel movement • Eventually fill and put pressure on the rectum • Sometimes expressed during a bowel movement

  40. Signs the anal glands need expression • Scooting their rear on the floor • Excessive licking at the rectum • Discomfort in the rectal area • Can be expressed internally or externally

  41. Anal gland location • Sacs located on either side of the rectum • Located at 3 o’clock and 9 o’clock positions • Odorous fluids

  42. External anal gland expression • Will need exam gloves, paper towels, soapy water or waterless shampoo • Locate the sacs on either side of the rectum • Gently apply pressure to the sac area by massaging the site using your thumb and pointer finger • Sacs should press against each other and release the fluid • *do not stand behind the dog • *odorous fluid may project several feet • Clean rectal area

  43. Internal anal gland expression • Performed by a veterinarian or veterinary technician • Glands may become impacted (difficult to express due to thickening) • Expression of the sacs via the inside of the rectum • Wear gloves with lubricated finger • Place finger just inside the rectum • Locate each sac separately and “milk” the contents out • Clean the rectal area

  44. Bathing • Clean the skin and hair coat of the animal • To apply medicated shampoos or dips to the skin and hair coat • Removes dirt and debris from the skin and hair with the use of shampoo, conditioner or water

  45. Dipping • Process of applying a chemical pesticide or medication to the skin and hair coat to treat a specific condition • Remain on the skin and hair coat for a period of time to allow them to work as specified (see label instructions) • Fleas, ticks, and mites

  46. Bathing- continued • Warm water • Bathe most dogs/cats every few months • Careful not to over bathe= strips natural oils and skin can dry out to become flaky • Use a protective eye ointment to lubricate and prevent injury from shampoo and/or water • Place cotton balls in ears

  47. Secure bathing • Use a leash • Harness • Secure leash to bath area or hold securely in one hand • Get help if needed • *NEVER leave the patient unattended when tied in a bathing area.

  48. Bathing- continued • Wet haircoat thoroughly with warm water • Include the digits, around the rectum and genital area, ears, axillary areas, care around face • Massage shampoo and conditioner into the skin • Keep conditioner on longer (5-10 minutes) • Rinse thoroughly • Squeeze excessive water from coat

  49. Bathing - Continued • Dry with a towel • Dry with hair dryer or cage dryer; high powered dryer • Watch dryer temperature settings to avoid thermal burns- monitor closely • Comb out hair during drying process • Make sure all areas are dry (ear flaps, digits, under the tail) • After the patient is dry, comb and brush out • Place patient in a clean area and clean the grooming area

  50. Bathing- personal protection • Wear an apron or water resistant coat • Wear goggles or glasses to protect your eyes • *CAREFUL* when bathing cats • Generally do not enjoy bathing/water • Avoid injuries to both patient and personnel