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The Small Animal Care Industry- Part III

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  1. The Small Animal Care Industry- Part III

  2. Animal Rights Movement • Not the same as Animal Welfare • Should not be used as if means the same as animal welfare • Media may wrongly use the two terms interchangeably

  3. Modern Animal Rights Movement • Over 400 animal rights groups exist today • Came into prominence in the 1960s and 1970s • Initially made up of urban people, many of whom were vegetarians

  4. Beliefs of Animal Rights Movement • Humanize animals to have the same rights as humans (humans are also animals) • To use animals for human purposes is morally and ethically wrong and reflects a bias that humans are superior to animals

  5. Beliefs of Animal Rights Movement • Animals should never be used for food, clothing, medical research, and/or product testing • Animals should not be used for entertainment • Believe in using ecoterrorism to prevent people from using animals if necessary

  6. Major Animal Rights Group • PETA (People for Ethical Treatment of Animals) • Largest animal rights group in the world. It has over 800,000 members • Since 1980, it has been dedicated to establishing and protecting rights of animals. Against eating, wearing, experimenting, and using for entertainment

  7. Animal Welfare Movement • Rooted in any several schools of thought • History of animal domestication dating back to Chinese and Egyptians • Early US use of animals for food, clothing, shelter, transportation, and horsepower to perform tasks

  8. Animal Welfare Schools of Thought • Creation view that God gave man dominion over animals which includes use and care (Genesis 1:26) • Various religions that use animal sacrifice and include great detail as to how to humanely slaughter the animal

  9. Animal Welfare Movement • Animal welfare influenced by early laws (Laws protecting animals were present before the animal rights movement)

  10. Animal Welfare Beliefs • Animals should be treated humanely regardless of how they are used • Animals should receive proper housing and nutrition • Animals should receive proper care for disease prevention and treatment for injuries • Euthanasia or slaughter should be done in a humane way

  11. Safety: Zoonotic diseases • Rabies- a viral disease that affects the nervous system and is contracted by bites and scratches of infected animals such as dogs and cats • Immunization is recommended if there is doubt about whether the animal is infected with rabies

  12. Rabies • Children 5-9 years of age make up less than 9% of the population but receive almost 30% of animal bites

  13. Rabies • Most domestic animals are not likely to be infected with rabies as long as they are vaccinated on a regular basis • Ninety-three percent (93%) of the reported rabies cases were in wild animals

  14. Toxoplasmosis • Disease produced by infection of Toxoplasma gondii parasite and spread through contaminated litter or cat feces

  15. Toxoplasmosis • Does not show up as long as the human immune system is working properly • Particularly of concern for pregnant women, as it may result in miscarriage, babies born prematurely or blind

  16. Toxoplasmosis • Prevent by wearing rubber, disposable gloves to daily clean litter boxes and thoroughly wash hands after cleaning litter box

  17. Ringworm • Fungal disease that shows up as round, scaly, encrusted lesions on the skin and a loss of hair where lesions occur

  18. Psittacosis • Also known as parrot fever, contracted by caged birds such as parrots, budgerigars, and related birds • Humans are infected through bird’s contaminated feces or fecal dust; wear dust mask and a face shield for cleaning cages if danger of infection

  19. Psittacosis • Parrot fever can be prevented by eliminating lice and mites by spraying disinfectants on the feathers of birds

  20. Cat-scratch fever • Non-serious disease associated with cat bites and scratches that results in swelling and soreness around the bite or scratch

  21. Salmonellosis • Disease that results from an infection of Salmonella bacteria and may be transmitted to humans and animals • Children and elderly are most at risk • Pet turtles and reptiles are a common source of infection in humans

  22. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever • Causes coagulation of the blood • Symptoms include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, skin rash and death if not treated with proper antibodies • Caused by bite of American dog tick and 6 other tick species

  23. Lyme Disease • Tick transmitted bacterial disease that results in a rash, distinctive skin lesion, hives and flu-like symptoms such as aching muscles, stiff neck, fatigue, fever, chills, painful joints, etc http://entomology.ucdavis.edu/faculty/rbkimsey/tickbio.html

  24. Leptospirosis • Disease that humans contract by water, food, or soil that has been contaminated by urine from small animals

  25. Parasites • Organisms that live on or within a host organism • Gain their sustenance (nourishment) from the host organism • Children are most at risk because they play with dogs and cats and in the area where animals have been.

  26. Ticks • Seven species carry Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever • Five species most often carry Zysore disease • Daily personal hygiene is especially important for those working with pets to remove small larvae that may go undetected by visual inspection

  27. Internal Parasites • Ascarids (Toxocara species) and hookworms (Ancylostoma species and Uncinaria stenocephala) affect dogs and cats • May be passed on to humans causing fever, headache, cough and poor appetite

  28. Ascarids • Children who play with dogs and cats are most at risk • Deworming of cats and dogs is the most effective prevention measure • Keep areas clean from feces http://www.cvm.okstate.edu/~users/jcfox/htdocs/clinpara/Toxocara.htm

  29. Tapeworms • Echinococus species carried by dogs and cats • May cause Alveolar Hydatid Disease (AHD) which can be fatal • Produce parasitic tumors or cysts in the liver of humans that may go unnoticed for years

  30. http://www.dr-dan.com/tapeworm.htm

  31. Safe Work Habits • Avoiding contamination in clinics and when working with multiple animals • Avoid contamination by frequent washing of hands and protective clothing • Separate sick animals and treat in separate areas • Do not eat or drink or store food and drink in treatment areas or where contamination can occur • Never wash lab coats and protective clothing with regular clothes

  32. Safe Work Habits • Protective clothing for working with small animals • Wear protective clothing and equipment when the job performed with a small animal requires it

  33. Safe Work Habits • Rubber unlined gloves, rubber boots, and face shield or goggles with anti fog lenses should be worn when handling chemicals or applying pesticides • Leather gloves help protect from bites and scratches

  34. Safe Work Habits • Coveralls and lab coats offer some additional protection from minor bites and scratches • Respirators should be worn when there is a danger of inhaling toxic dust and other substances

  35. Safe Work Habits • Chemical safety when working with small animals • Use chemicals according to label instructions • Store chemicals in the original container whenever possible

  36. Safe Work Habits • Avoid over mixing and storing chemicals, but if chemicals must be stored, make certain they are in 1- a locked location and 2- clearly labeled • Dispose of all chemicals and their containers according to label instructions • Frequently wash hands and exposed area after using chemicals

  37. Safe Work Habits • Proper handling techniques for small animals • Learn proper and safe handling techniques that prevent injury to the animal and handler • Keep a first aid kit available for workers who do suffer bites or scratches

  38. Safe Work Habits • Briefly restrain animals when needed for examination or treatment • To work around the head of a cat, the animal can be wrapped in a blanket and placed in a zippered canvas bag so that the handler can grasp the back of the head and hold the head between the thumb and fingers

  39. Safe Work Habits • Dogs are briefly restrained by placing one arm under the dog’s neck with the forearm holding the head while the other arm is placed around the animal’s body to pull it close to the handler

  40. Safe Work Habits • Muzzles for dogs prevent biting and can be a simple narrow strip of gauze or cloth made by making a loop in the material. • Rabbits can be picked up by grabbing the scruff of the neck with one hand and lifting up while placing the other hand under the rump for support. To hold, simply use the same technique but the hand under the rump is moved to support the abdomen.

  41. Safe Work Habits • Rabbits seldom bite but may cause injury with their hind legs or may be injured if placed on a smooth surface. A rabbit’s foot pads are covered with fur which may cause a lack of traction if they are placed on a smooth or slick surface and may result in dislocation of their hip or spine when they try to move or hop

  42. Safe Work Habits • Rats and mice that are used to being handled, can be picked up by grasping the tail close to the body with one hand and using the other hand to grasp loose skin in the neck and shoulder area.

  43. THE END