The manufacturing or prodn process can b defined as a set of activities that r performed to modify n add value to d input n convert it into d desired output. • Types of prodn process • Process prodn: process prodn is defined as a system for prodn where a similar product is produced continuously in large qty, yr after yr. e.g. cement , sugar industry. • Infrastructure : d industries where this type of process is adopted is capital intensive with special purpose machinery. • Manpower : this system requires some specialist for d particular type of operation . Most of labour is unskilled.
Mass and flow prodn :it is a prodn system designed to produce several std products in large qty.similar type of product can b produced on d basis of common input materials e.g. automobile • Infrastructure : capital intensive, d prodn involves a combination of special n general purpose machinery. • Cost : this type of prodn process is cost effective. Cost of prodn may fluctuate a little but more or less d prodn cost is constant provided other variables such as input material cost , wages remain constant. • Manpower : a combination of skilled n unskilled labour is reqd
Batch prodn: it is a prodn process where it is suitable to produce in batches. this process is adopted where requirement is to produce a ltd no of product in different qty. in comparison to mass n flow and process prodn , d qty is smaller n prodn is there in batches not a constant flow. • Infrastructure : in places where this type of prodn process is adopted , material handling n storage is immense. • Cost : cost factor is competitive keeping in mind the variety of goods n comparatively smaller qty of products which in turn gives a higher cost tod mgt for having d diff type of input materials
Jobbing production : it involves prodn of one or more numbers of products whose volume is generally small. There is no great variation in d type of products that r produced. • Infrastructure : cost of infrastructure is high. • Project production : it can be described as a set of activities performed to produce one single product. D output is immovable in nature n diff agencies with diff skills r deployed on that product to complete it . • Infrastructure: since d nature of output is immovable , d machinery should b such tht it can b transported to d site of prodn easily n should not require complex installation n foundations.
Cost n manpower : co work with a predetermined budget assigned as cost of prodn and d manpower used for project prodn isa amix of skilled as well as unskilled labour.
Selection of prodn process • Generally, the selected one should meet the foll criteria • All specifications r met • Desired quality is there • Cost of prodn is feasible to produce d good
Factors affecting selection • Variety and volume: Volume high ,variety one product-process prodn Volume high, variety high -assembly (mass &flow) Volume low, variety high – jobbing (batch) Single product –project production • Lead time: A lead time is the period of time between the initiation of any process of production and the completion of that process .
Efficiency :it is d ability to produce d desired quality at minimum cost • Flexibility : as d prodn is done on the basis of mkt assumptions n future is uncertain so the chosen prodn process should posses flexibility to have change with little or no investment . • Reusability :as changes in the product is reqd as per the mkt., then the best prodn process is d one in which most of infrastructure can still b of use.