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  1. Livestock and the Environment Johanna Davis

  2. Agricultural Concerns • Federal & State Environmental Laws • Endangered Species Act

  3. B. Environmental Problems of Livestock Production

  4. 1. Changes in Livestock Production • Trend toward larger livestock operations • Use of large livestock confinement systems such as feedlots

  5. 2. Changing Environment of Agriculture • Migration of city dwellers to agricultural areas. • Why? • Escape problems of city life • Attracted to recreational developments

  6. Changing Environment of Agriculture, cont • Attitudes • Find odors offensive • Unaware of byproducts of livestock production

  7. 3. Livestock Waste Disposal Concerns • Communities share the cost of waste disposal in cities • Cost of facility – several million dollars • Cost to individual in city - $100 to $200

  8. Livestock Waste Disposal Concerns, cont • Individuals responsible for cost for livestock enterprises • 200,000 hens, 1,200 head of cattle in a feedlot, 10,500 hogs may produce as much waste as 20,000 people.

  9. C. Agricultural Disposal Systems • Must be part of the total management plan • Must be affordable • Must meet the expectations of the non farming people who live nearby • Must meet environmental regulations

  10. D. Federal Regulations • Federal Water Quality Act of 1965 • Refuse Act of 1899 • Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965 • Federal Clean Air Act

  11. E. State Regulations • Most states have some type of environmental protection agency • Enforce State & Federal regulations • Nuisance Laws • May include odors, dust, chemicals, water pollution, animal noises, carcass disposal, etc

  12. F. Water Pollutants • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) • EPA monitors • Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) • Fecal Coliform • Fecal Streptococcus • Suspended Solids • Phosphorus • Ammonia

  13. G. Handling Livestock Wastes • Objective is to control • Prevent surface & groundwater pollution • other Nuisances • Odors • Dust • Flies • Rodents

  14. Handling Livestock Wastes, cont. • Amount of Manure Produced • Species • Age of Animal • Ration Fed

  15. Handling Livestock Wastes, cont. • Fertilizer Usage– Nutrient Content Factors • Length of time in storage • Method of treatment • Amount and type of bedding used • Amount of dilution by water entering the system

  16. F. Manure Handling Systems • Factors to consider • EPA Regulations • Kind of Animal Being Raised • Kind of Housing and Management • Size and Type of Operation • Climate • Characteristics of Operation

  17. Manure Handling Systems, cont. • Classification of Facilities • Confined • Open Lot • Lot and Shelter • Enclosed Shelter • Unconfined • Pasture • Range

  18. Manure Handling Systems, cont. • Types of Systems • Liquid • Pits • Lagoon • Storage Basins • Solid

  19. G. Determining the Amount of Livestock Waste to Apply on the Land

  20. Determining the Amount of Livestock Waste to Apply on the Land • Agronomic Nitrogen Rate • Available Nitrogen per unit of yield necessary to produce a given crop • Varies with species • Varies with ration fed • Varies with method of collection and storage • Phosphorus Requirements

  21. H. Disposing of Manure • Spread on land • All solid systems • All liquid systems except lagoons • Valuable as fertilizers

  22. Disposing of Manure, cont. • Environmental Considerations • Must be incorporated or injected in the soils • Do not apply to frozen or snow cover land • Do not apply immediately before or after a rainstorm to to saturated land

  23. . Disposing of Manure, cont. • Do not apply to grass waterways • Do not apply within 200 feet of surface waters or within 150 feet of a well • Reduce the amount applied if there is a high water table present or if soil is highly permeable

  24. I. Preventing Feedlot Runoff • Diversion – prevent surface water from entering • Drainage – channel runoff from feedlot

  25. Preventing Feedlot Runoff, cont • Debris basins – catch run off from pens • Holding ponds – temporary storage for runoff • Disposal – collect and use for irrigation or allow to evaporate

  26. J. Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes • Caused by anaerobic bacteria breaking down the organic components • Occurs when no Oxygen is present

  27. Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, cont • Gases dangerous to people and livestock in poorly ventilated or confinement areas • Odors may cause neighbors to take legal action against the farmer

  28. Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, cont • Control Methods • Reduced by mixing air with manure • Mix manure in soil as soon as possible after hauling/spreading

  29. Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, cont • Chemical and Bacterial culture • Masking agents • Cover up odors • Counteractants • Attempt to neutralize odors

  30. Gases and Odors from Livestock Wastes, cont Chemical and Bacterial culture, cont • Deodorants • Chemicals that kill the bacteria that cause odor • Digestive deodorants • Create a digestive process to eliminate odor

  31. K. Disposal of Dead Animals • Responsibility of owner • Many states require within 24 to 48 hrs • Done so as not to cause health hazard • Diseases may spread to other animals/humans • Treat any dead animal as though diseased • Eliminate environmental threats

  32. Disposal of Dead Animals, cont • Transport in a covered, metal, leak proof vehicle • Approved Methods • Licensed disposal plant • Burying • Disposal pits • Burning • Composting

  33. F. Livestock Laws • Animal Trespass • Owner Liability • Damage to property • Estray • Domestic Animal of Unknown ownership running at large • Land owner may retain possession until compensated (varies by states)

  34. Livestock Laws, cont • Animals On Highways • May cause traffic accidents • Owner Liability • Usually negligence must be proven

  35. Revised 2/1/2001