Livestock Production: The Farm, The Environment, The Community - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

livestock production the farm the environment the community n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Livestock Production: The Farm, The Environment, The Community PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Livestock Production: The Farm, The Environment, The Community

play fullscreen
1 / 82
Livestock Production: The Farm, The Environment, The Community
275 Views
Download Presentation
kane-burton
Download Presentation

Livestock Production: The Farm, The Environment, The Community

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Livestock Production:The Farm,The Environment,The Community Livestock Production:The Farm,The Environment,The Community March 28, 2005 Dr. Steve Hoff, Colin Johnson March 28, 2006

  2. Why are we concerned?Community acceptance may be one of the driving factors in survival of your operation. March 28, 2005

  3. Why is the public concerned?An operations effect on: • water quality • air quality • property values • roads & bridges • other farms March 28, 2005

  4. Types of operations • Regulations center on protection of natural resources • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) responsible at Federal level • National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) • Regulates discharge of pollutants from point sources into waters of the United States

  5. Types of operations • Define operations based on size • Animal Feeding Operation or AFO • AFOs are agricultural operations where animals are kept and raised in confined situations. AFOs generally congregate animals, feed, manure, dead animals, and production operations on a small land area. Feed is brought to the animals rather than the animals grazing or otherwise seeking feed in pastures. Animal waste and wastewater can enter water bodies from spills or breaks of waste storage structures (due to accidents or excessive rain), and non-agricultural application of manure to crop land.

  6. Types of operations • Define operations based on size • Animal Feeding Operation or AFO • An AFO is a lot or facility (other than an aquatic animal production facility) where the following conditions are met: • Animals have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period, and • Crops, vegetation, forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility. Source: US EPA

  7. Types of operations • Define operations based on size • Animal Feeding Operation or AFO • AFOs that meet the regulatory definition of a CAFO may be regulated under the NPDES permitting program. • Previous EPA regulations based the definition of CAFOs on the number of "animal units" confined. • EPA no longer uses the term "animal unit," but instead refers to the actual number of animals at the operation to define a CAFO. Source: US EPA

  8. Types of operations Source: US EPA

  9. Iowa requirements are based on operation size • 1200 hd (480 animal units) • Storm water discharge permit if > 1 acre disturbed during construction • Tile around footings (with a shut off) or certify (prof. engineer) ground water table is below the structure • No alluvial (flood plain) or karst (bedrock) areas • Upgrade concrete standards if on karst Source: US EPA

  10. Iowa requirements are based on operation size • 1200 hd (480 animal units) • No manure management plan is needed • No construction permits are required • Master matrix is not used • No lawful separation required from residences or public use areas • Separations • 200 ft. from shallow well • 100 ft. from deep well • 1000 ft. from major water source (navigable) • 500 ft. from water sources (a bed with water flow and defined banks) (excludes farm ponds) • 2500 ft. State or Federal wetlands Source: US EPA

  11. Iowa requirements are based on operation size • 2400 hd (960 animal units) • Manure management plan required ($250) • Manure storage indemnity fee $96 • No construction permit • No master matrix required • Construction design statement (CDS) submitted at least 30 days before construction or Prof. Engineer Design Certification (generally provided by the builder) Source: US EPA

  12. Iowa requirements are based on operation size • 1200 hd (480 animal units) • Separations • 1250 ft. from residences, businesses, churches, and schools • 1875 ft. public use areas (parks, cemeteries, etc.) • 200 ft. from shallow well • 100 ft. from a deep well • 1000 ft. from major water sources (navigable) • 500 ft. from water sources (a bed with water flow and defined banks) (excludes farm ponds) • 2500 ft. State or Federal wetlands • 100 ft. road right of way ** Are minimums producer can increase in they think it is warrented Source: US EPA

  13. Iowa requirements are based on operation size • 2400 hd (960 animal units) • Storm water discharge permit if > 1 acre disturbed during construction • Tile around footings (with a shut off) or certify (prof. engineer) ground water table is below the structure • No alluvial (flood plain) or karst (bedrock) areas • Upgrade concrete standards if on karst • Water use permit - $25 • Annual compliance fee - $144.00 ($0.15 x 960 AU) due with annual update of MMP Source: US EPA

  14. Iowa requirements are based on operation size • Master matrix – what is it? • A master matrix is a scoring system that was designed to evaluate the siting and manure management practices of proposed permitted operations based on environmental risks and community impacts. • The matrix was required by Iowa law, Senate File 2293, enacted by the 79th General Assembly in spring 2002. Source: US EPA

  15. Iowa requirements are based on operation size • It was developed by a 10-member technical advisory committee that was designated in the legislation. • Based on committee consensus on 44 factors addressing air quality, water quality, and community impacts. • After public input and revisions to the proposed matrix, the Environmental Protection Commission set passing scores on the matrix at 440 points of the total available. • Producers must pass 25 percent of the available points in each of the subcategories of air quality, water quality, and community impact. Source: US EPA

  16. Site considerations • Like prime property value it is driven by – LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION • Identify best location for a new livestock operation • 1st step in growing a farming operation responsibly • 90% of Iowa’s land is devoted to food production • Many areas that are suitable for livestock facilities • Does not mean there are no poor locations

  17. Site considerations • Size of barn and manure-holding structure • Available land for nutrient utilization • Distance to surface water or wells • Avoid karst (rock) terrain or alluvial (flood) soils • Determine distance to neighbors • Prevailing summer winds typically from south and west • Proximity of roads, bridges, lakes, streams, wetlands, and other public-use areas • Opportunities for future growth at a site

  18. How have we gotten to this point ? • Over time farms and specifically livestock facilities must be modified, expanded and / or replaced. • Reasons for farm expansion • Increased costs of living, • increased demand for livestock products • Including another generation into the business

  19. Environmental Concerns

  20. Public concerns • Center around three main areas • Soil • Accumulation of minerals in the soil • Runoff of minerals from land where nutrients were applied • Water • Surface • Ground water • Air • Nuisance • Health

  21. Challenges • Producers must meet the demands • Many technologies are available to address these concerns. • Expensive in a time of declining margins

  22. Pig Densities • Livestock production is becoming concentrated in many geographical parts of the world. • Pork production is no exception

  23. Pig Densities in Selected Countries(Adapted from Saskatchewan Agriculture Food and Rural Revitalization, Statistics Canada.)

  24. Pig Densities in Selected Countries(Adapted from Saskatchewan Agriculture Food and Rural Revitalization, Statistics Canada.)

  25. Pig Densities in Selected Countries(Adapted from Saskatchewan Agriculture Food and Rural Revitalization, Statistics Canada.)

  26. Why are we concerned? • The issue to locate a new livestock facility generates debate in Iowa and other states? • Why do you suppose it causes more debate in some countries and less in others?

  27. How can we overcome concerns? March 28, 2005

  28. How can we overcome concerns? • Management and facility approaches • Proper siting • Environmental measures • Knowing our neighbors

  29. What are emission sources? 1. Housing 2. Storage 3. Land Application Dr. Hongwei Xin

  30. What are emissions? • Common Pollutants • Odor • Dust (PM) • Ammonia (NH3) • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) • Control Points • Prevent generation • Capture or destroy before release • Disperse or disguise to reduce impact Dr. Robert Burns

  31. Building Emissions • Constant Sources • Buildings typically release odors & gases continuously and at relatively stable rates. • Emission rate depends on: • animal & housing system • ventilation system and rate • manure collection system and frequency of removal Dr. Robert Burns

  32. Possible Approaches • Filtration • Barriers • Vegetation / landscaping • Diet Manipulation • Oil sprinkling • Solids separation Dr. Robert Burns

  33. Possible Approaches • Covers • Composting • Additives • Injection • Application timing • Aeration • Anaerobic Digestion Dr. Robert Burns

  34. What affects odor/gas release & dispersion ? • Wind speed 2. Area 1. Temperature 2. Wind speed 3. Topography 3. Source intensity Dr. Hongwei Xin

  35. N N 10 mph 10 mph Clear summer DAY, Open flat terrain Clear summer NIGHT, Open flat terrain N N 2 mph 10 mph Clear Summer DAY, Open flat terrain Clear summer NIGHT, Trees down-wind of odor source Weather/Terrain Impact Odor Plumes 5+ odor units 2-4 odor units 1 odor unit Dr. Hongwei Xin

  36. Siting of new facilities We must be wise about how we site facilities.

  37. Community Assessment How far do odors travel? When is the potential greatest for odor nuisance? How can this information be used to make siting recommendations? How can we modify odor transport?

  38. Community Assessment Model or CAM • Program developed here at Iowa State Univ. • Ag & Biosystems Engineering - Dr. Steve Hoff • Community based odor assessment model to help identify most favorable site livestock facility • New facility – swine, poultry, dairy, beef feedlot, etc. • Expand an existing facility • Program supported by the Coalition to Support Iowa’s Farmers = location, location, location

  39. Community Assessment Model or CAM • Based on numerous factors • Weather conditions • Wind patterns • Type and size of facility • Terrain • Other swine or livestock facilities in the area • Neighbor sensitivity

  40. Community Assessment Model or CAM • Predicts the new or expanding livestock impact on area neighbors • Amount of time they will be exposed to different odor levels • Impact that implementing odor mitigation methods might have • Accounts for other existing sources of odor within a community

  41. Community Assessment Model or CAM • Need site specific information • Proposed new facility or existing modification • Specific weather data • Current model only useful for Swine not other kinds of livestock • Been used to evaluate over 60 locations in Iowa

  42. Community Assessment Model or CAM • Remaining questions • Can the model work for poultry, dairy, and beef ? • Can the model be evaluated on how well did it performed when it was utilized in making a siting decision? • Can the number of available odor mitigation strategies be expanded? • How does terrain impact wind patters?

  43. Reducing odor from swine facilities • Building factors • When building a new facility consider a waste handling system that allows routine removal of material • Every 7 days or less • Remodeling facilities • Smooth surfaces (floors, walls and ceilings) aid cleaning • Slatted floors stay drier than slotted floors • Pulling ventilation from under the floor promotes drier floors • Use good judgment • Agitate and empty pits when favorable wind conditions prevail – blowing away from neighbors • Avoid making a mess on the roads • Work with your neighbors From Purdue University Extension

  44. Reducing odor from swine facilities • Building factors • Clean the buildings after each group of pigs or “turn” • Keep 2” of water on the floor of open or under-floor manure collection gutters and pits From Purdue University Extension

  45. Reducing odor from swine facilities • Animal factors • Keep animals clean and dry • Scrape manure buildup when it occurs on floors • Maintain animal health – avoid scours • Provide optimal conditions – warm, dry and draft-free • Provide recommended space allowance • Overstocking • Cases where intentional overstocking occurs • Understocking From Purdue University Extension

  46. Reducing odor from swine facilities • Animal factors • Provide proper ventilation • Air flow rates • Air distribution • Waterer maintance • Repair leaky waters – keeps floors dry • Maintain waterers at correct height • Avoids wasting – Diluting manure • Use flow-through pen design to keep floors dry From Purdue University Extension

  47. Reducing odor from swine facilities • Dietary methods for reducing swine odor • Use feeding methods where more precision can be used to meet animal dietary requirements • Split sex feeding • Phase feeding • Consider pelleting diet • Improves digestibility • Smaller particle size • Heat during the pelleting process • Use wet feeding systems (3:1 water to feed ratio) • Reduces feed spillage / waste • Reduces water wasting • Challenges – freezing, spoilage, etc. From Purdue University Extension

  48. Reducing odor from swine facilities • Dietary methods for reducing swine odor • Add oils and fats to feed • Reduce barn dust • Enzymes ? From Purdue University Extension

  49. Reducing odor from swine facilities • Carcass disposal • Remove mortalities from site to rendering facility within 24 hrs. • If removal is not feasible • Incinerate • Cost? • Compost • Takes management • Bury • Check state regulations • Properly site and manage the burial pits • Any method must not be disturbed by pets or wild animals • Neighbor relations • Health From Purdue University Extension