tennessee s wild turkey n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Tennessee’s Wild Turkey PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Tennessee’s Wild Turkey

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 92

Tennessee’s Wild Turkey - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 90 Views
  • Uploaded on

Tennessee’s Wild Turkey. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS. Largest game bird in North America Excellent eyesight, 8 times more powerful than a humans Slight turn of the head gives a turkey a 360 degree field of vision Hearing is extremely acute!! Poor sense of smell. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Tennessee’s Wild Turkey' - wenda


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
physical characteristics
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • Largest game bird in North America
  • Excellent eyesight, 8 times more powerful than a humans
  • Slight turn of the head gives a turkey a 360 degree field of vision
  • Hearing is extremely acute!!
  • Poor sense of smell
physical characteristics1
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • Powerful legs allow turkey to run up to 12 mph
  • Legs are red in color (domestic turkey brown, black, silver, or white)
  • Legs covered with scales
physical characteristics2
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • Turkeys can swim
  • Turkeys can fly at speeds up to 55 mph.
  • Adult males average 17 to 21 pounds
  • Adult females average 8 to 11 pounds
  • Record 31.1 pounds
slide5
Spur
  • Both sexes born with small button spur
  • Starts growing soon after hatching in males.
  • Adult spur has bony core
  • Grows gradually
  • Record - 2”
beard
Beard
  • Tuft of stiff keratinous filaments
  • Beard never undergoes a molt
  • Male beards become visible at 6-7 months of age
  • Approximately 10% of hens in Tennessee have beards
  • Record - 16.9”
turkey feathers
Turkey Feathers
  • Turkeys typically have ten primary feathers and 18-19 secondary feathers
  • Turkeys have 18 tail feathers
  • Between 5,000 and 6,000 feathers cover the body of the adult wild turkey
turkey feathers1
Turkey Feathers
  • Functions
    • Cover the body
    • Insulate
    • Waterproofing
    • Flight
    • Ornamentation for display and recognition
  • Gobbler chest and back feathers are black tipped (domestic turkeys white tipped)
  • Gobbler feathers are metallic in color with hints of red, green, copper, bronze and gold
turkey feathers2
Turkey Feathers
  • Hen’s plumage is much duller than gobblers
  • Appears more brownish in color due to brown tips on contour feathers of the breast and back
turkey feathers3
Turkey Feathers
  • 4 different molts resulting in different plumages
    • Natal (plumage at birth)
    • Juvenal
    • First basic
    • Alternate (first winter)
    • Basic (adult)
  • Melanistic, erythritic, albinotic
  • Smoke gray (incomplete albino) is the most common reported color abnormality
  • Complete albinos have never been documented in wild flocks.
skeletal structure
Skeletal Structure
  • Functional Morphology
habitat requirements
HABITAT REQUIREMENTS

Mature forest needed for roosting and feeding. Need open understory.

habitat requirements1
HABITAT REQUIREMENTS

Forest Openings needed for brood rearing and feeding

slide19

Wild turkey eggs are larger than chicken eggs, smaller than domestic turkey eggs (2.5 oz.)

  • More pointed than domestic turkey eggs
  • Nest is nothing more than shallow depression on ground
  • Lay 1 egg per day
  • Lay 10 to 12 eggs
  • Peak hatch is first week of June.
  • 35% of nest are successful
slide20

Select area with knee-high brush that provides some cover. Most nest are located near a forest opening, logging road, pasture, etc…Nest often located at base of tree or shrub (overhead protection). Nesting habitat generally not a limiting factor.

  • Clearcuts and fields common areas for turkeys to nest
slide21
Reproduction drives turkey populations

7 to 10 days of age poults area able to fly up into low bushes. At two weeks of age they can fly up and roost in trees.

slide22

Grow rapidly, by end of August they are as big as their mother.

Insects are critical food for young poults

fall food
FALL FOOD
  • Ever wonder where the turkeys go in the fall?
  • When the acorns drop, the turkeys move into the forest to feed on them
slide26

Persimmon

Autumn Olive

Don’t forget soft mast

fall food1
FALL FOOD

Annual grains, such as millet, corn, and sunflower provides good fall and winter food.

winter food
WINTERFOOD
  • Common winter food:
  • Acorns
  • Waste Grain
  • Green Vegetation
  • Grass seed heads
  • Soft mast
  • Almost ANYTHING is potential food source!
slide29

Turkeys will feed on clover and other green plants frequently during the winter and early spring months

turkey gold chufa
Turkey Gold Chufa

Turkeys will feed on chufa from fall into the spring months

pleistocene california turkey
PLEISTOCENECalifornia Turkey
  • Low temperatures
  • Tundra like habitat
  • Very little water available
california turkey
California Turkey
  • Disappeared 10,000 years ago
  • Second most common bird species found in tar seeps
  • Quickly became extinct
  • Very similar to modern turkey. Same genus different species.
native american wild turkey uses
Native American Wild Turkey uses
  • Food source (bones found in midden piles)
  • Domestic animal (anasazi 200 AD – 1300 AD)
  • Clothing (feather capes, blankets)
native american wild turkey uses1
Native American Wild Turkey uses
  • Decorations (pipes, gorgets, and religious items)
native american wild turkey uses2
Native American Wild Turkey uses
  • Tools (arrows, awls, needles, turkey calls, whistles)
  • Ornamentation (headdresses and hair)
native american wild turkey uses3
Native American Wild Turkey uses
  • Religious ceremonies (Maya, Zapotec, and Zuni)
  • Trade items (Anasazi and Chickasaw)
  • Tribute (Aztecs of Mexico)
  • Names (Standing Turkey)
aztec indians
Aztec Indians
  • DOMESTICATION – Only N American Indian tribe to domestic the wild turkey
  • TAX- Montezuma required one turkey per person every 20 days, One state provided 56,000 birds annually
  • RAPTOR COLLECTION - 500 turkeys per day were used to feed the collection hawks and eagles
  • PALACE - Used another 500 turkeys per day
  • AFTER DEATH- Spanish continued to exact a tribute of 30,000 turkeys a year from the N American Indians
aztec indians1
Aztec Indians
  • Only Nobles and ruling classes were allowed to eat turkey. Some exceptions were made at some religious feasts.
early explorers
Early Explorers
  • Hernando Cortez - 1517 - 1521
  • Hernando Desoto - 1540
  • John Lawson & Santee John - 1700
  • Dr. Thomas Walker - 1750
  • Longhunters - 1760
  • Mrs. John Donaldson - 1779
  • Andre Michaux - 1796 and 1802
  • William Murrey and John Buchanan - 1800
factors that led to the decline of the wild turkey population
FACTORS THAT LED TO THE DECLINE OF THE WILD TURKEY POPULATION
  • Un-Regulated Hunting
  • Year round hunting
  • Subsistence Hunting
  • Market Hunting
  • Baiting and Trapping
  • Roost Shooting
factors that led to the decline of the wild turkey population1
FACTORS THAT LED TO THE DECLINE OF THE WILD TURKEY POPULATION
  • Habitat Changes
    • Clearing of Land
    • Loss of Important Food Sources
  • Domestic Poultry Brought in by Settlers
    • Diseases and Genetic Pollution of Wild Flocks
domestic poultry
DOMESTIC POULTRY

Mixing of domestic turkeys with wild turkeys may result in:

Introduction of domestic poultry diseases that can negatively effect:

Reproduction ( Poult Production )

Survival of Adults and Poults

Genetic pollution of wild flocks

Hybrids poorly adapted for survival in the wild

Lower survival rates of poults produced

wildlife laws
WILDLIFE LAWS
  • Lacey Act enacted in 1905 prohibited interstate sale of taken wildlife.
  • Pittman-Robertson Act of 1937 put an excise tax on sporting goods and ammunition.
state status
State Status
  • Wild turkey flocks had been steadily declining throughout Tennessee during the last half of the 18th century
  • War on northern aggression
  • Still no control of harvest
  • By 1900 it was quite evident that the wild turkey was in serious trouble throughout the state of Tennessee
1920 1930
1920 - 1930
  • Wild turkey season was closed for a short period in the mid 20’s because of concern over the declining turkey flocks
  • The wild turkey population continued to decline even more
1920 19301
1920 - 1930
  • The chestnut blight removed a very important food source for the wild turkey
1930 1940
1930 - 1940
  • In the mid 30’s wild turkey hunting was closed for three years out of concern for he low wild turkey populations throughout the state
  • Game farms were established in 1935 at Buffalo Springs & Cheatham WMA by the Department of Conservation
  • Pen-reared turkeys were purchased from out-of-state sources
game farm turkeys
GAME FARM TURKEYS
  • From 1936 to 1939 the Tennessee Department of Conservation raised a total of about 2,000 pen-reared wild turkeys on the two game farms
  • These birds were released at various release sites across the state
1940 1950
1940 - 1950
  • The hunting seasons for wild turkey were closed completely Jan. 31,1940 until April 1951
1940 19501
1940 - 1950
  • During that time a total of 3,719 pen-reared wild turkeys were released across the state
  • Some releases of over 200 birds per release site were made
results of stocking of pen reared turkeys
RESULTS OF STOCKING OF PEN-REARED TURKEYS
  • Native wild flocks continued to decline and disappear
  • Not a single self-sustaining wild flock was established using pen-reared wild turkeys
  • The stocking of pen-reared birds was discontinued in 1951
statewide wild turkey survey 1952
STATEWIDE WILD TURKEY SURVEY - 1952
  • Wild turkeys reported in only 18 of Tennessee’s 95 counties
  • Wild flocks continued to decline in the wake of massive releases of pen-reared birds from 1936 thru 1950
  • Many counties that had received large releases of pen-reared birds reported no recent wild turkey sightings
modern restoration
MODERN RESTORATION
  • FEB. 25, 1949

Legislation was passed creating a Tennessee Game and Fish Commission that was separate from the Department of Conservation

modern restoration1
MODERN RESTORATION
  • 1951

A new deer and turkey restoration project was initiated using live-trapped wild turkey and deer

turkey restoration 1 951 1960
TURKEY RESTORATION 1951 - 1960
  • The major emphasis was placed on the deer restoration program
  • Early attempts at live trapping wild turkey involved drop nets, log crib type traps, and walk-in pens
turkey restoration 1951 1960
TURKEY RESTORATION 1951 - 1960
  • Very little success was achieved - after 3 years of effort, the first two wild birds were caught in 1954
  • A total of 119 live-trapped wild birds were moved from 1951-1960
turkey restoraton 1961 1970
TURKEY RESTORATON 1961 - 1970
  • The development of the cannon net system for capturing waterfowl was adapted for use in capturing wild turkeys
turkey restoraton 1961 19701
TURKEY RESTORATON 1961 - 1970
  • Started stocking live-trapped wild birds on private lands in 1970
  • A total of 271 wild birds were trapped and relocated from 1961 to 1970, bringing the total moved since 1951 to 390
turkey restoration 1971 1980
TURKEY RESTORATION 1971 - 1980
  • Made improvements in the cannon net system – began using rockets (powered with Howitzer powder) instead of cannons
turkey restoration 1971 19801
TURKEY RESTORATION 1971 - 1980
  • More emphasis put on wild turkey
  • 1974 Game and Fish re-organized into TWRA
  • Total of 1,242 wild birds were relocated from 1971 to 1980, bringing total moved since 1951 to 1,632
turkey restoration 1981 1990
TURKEY RESTORATION 1981 - 1990
  • Deer restoration was completed and the deer program was separated from the wild turkey restoration program
  • Development of the rocket net box system improved wild turkey trapping success
turkey restoration 1981 19901
TURKEY RESTORATION 1981 - 1990
  • More personnel became involved in the wild turkey trapping program
  • A total of 3,194 wild birds were relocated from 1981 to 1990. The total moved from 1951 thru 1990 was 4,826
turkey restoration 1991 2000
TURKEY RESTORATION1991 - 2000
  • Wildlife Officers trapping and moving birds locally greatly supplements the restoration efforts statewide
  • More personnel became involved
turkey restoration 1991 20001
TURKEY RESTORATION1991 - 2000
  • 7,303 birds moved from Jan 1,1991 thru Feb 2000. Bringing the total moved since 1951 to 13,761.
  • Wild turkeys are now found in all 95 counties and all 95 counties are open to hunting
wild turkey restoration summary
YEAR TOTAL NUMBER MOVED

1951-1960 119

1961-1970 271

1971-1980 1,242

1981-1990 3,194

1991-2000 7,303

2001- present 2,195

WILD TURKEY RESTORATION SUMMARY
average number of birds moved per year
Average number of birds moved per year
  • Total number of birds moved to date is 13,761
wild turkey restoration
WILD TURKEY RESTORATION
  • 69% of the total 13,761 live-trapped wild turkeys released for turkey restoration have been moved since Jan. 1, 1988
  • 57% have been moved since Jan. 1, 1991
  • We will have essentially completed all our major restoration efforts by the turn of the century

SUCCESS

wild turkey harvest
WILD TURKEY HARVEST
  • 1951- TOTAL OF 14 IN 2 COUNTIES
  • 1961- TOTAL OF 133 IN 8 COUNTIES
  • 1971- TOTAL OF 209 IN 16 COUNTIES
  • 1981- TOTAL OF 695 IN 32 COUNTIES
  • 1991- TOTAL OF 4,375 IN 75 COUNTIES
  • 1994- TOTAL OF 7,574 IN 88 COUNTIES
  • 1995- TOTAL OF 11,530 IN 92 COUNTIES
  • 1996- TOTAL OF 12,861 IN 94 COUNTIES
  • 1997- TOTAL OF 16,156 IN 94 COUNTIES
  • 2000- TOTAL OF 22,145 IN 95 COUNTIES
  • 2002- TOTAL OF 32,337 IN 95 COUNTIES

45 years to open

most of the

Tennessee counties

wild turkey harvest milestones
WILD TURKEY HARVEST MILESTONES
  • 1980 - Exceeded 500 birds for the first time
  • 1984 - Exceeded 1,000
  • 1988 - Exceeded 2,000
  • 1990 - Exceeded 3,000
  • 1991 - Exceeded 4,000

Took ten years to gain 3,500 birds

slide77

WILD TURKEY HARVEST MILESTONES

  • 1992 - Exceeded 5,000
  • 1994 - Exceeded 7,580
  • 1995 - Exceeded 11,550
  • 1996 - Exceeded 12,860
  • 1997 - Exceeded 16,150
  • 1998 - Exceeded 16,180 Spring plus 447 Fall
wild turkey harvest milestones1
WILD TURKEY HARVEST MILESTONES
  • 2000 - Exceeded 20,000
  • 2002 - Exceeded 30,000
progress
PROGRESS
  • Re-opened 108 portions of 62 different counties since 1991
  • Now we have viable wild turkey populations in all 95 counties in Tennessee
  • Set new harvest records every year for last 23 years
  • Increased the wild turkey population from 1,000 birds in the mid-60’s to over 300,000 birds today
population indices brood survey
Population IndicesBrood survey
  • Number of hens and poults seen during routine duties by field personnel or cooperators.
  • Used to determine poult to hen ratio
  • Provides reliable indices to annual reproduction
slide84

Ecology of the Wild Turkey

  • 5 subspecies -- Eastern, Merriam’s, Gould’s, Rio Grande, and Florida
  • Each have subtle plumage and behavioral differences