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Alien Worlds Discovered!. 400 years from seeing our own solar system’s planets to seeing planets around other stars. Lets go back 400 years. The spectacle maker’s shop. Florentine rivet bone or ivory spectacle frame late 15th c. http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it. Galileo’s telescopes.

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400 years from seeing our own solar system s planets to seeing planets around other stars

Alien Worlds Discovered!

400 years from seeing our own solar system’s planets to seeing planets around other stars

lets go back 400 years
Lets go back 400 years
  • The spectacle maker’s shop

Florentine rivet bone or ivory spectacle frame late 15th c.

http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it

galileo s telescopes
Galileo’s telescopes
  • Very crude instrument by today’s standards.
    • Magnified between 8x to 30x
  • He made several that he gave to his sponsors

http://galileo.rice.edu/index.html

slide5

Replica

http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it

comparisons with a reproduction of his telescope
Comparisons with a reproduction of his telescope

First quarter moon

One of Galileo’s drawings

What he probably saw.

His telescope only would let him see small portions at a time.

http://www.pacifier.com/~tpope/index.htm

galileo s key observations
Galileo’s key observations
  • Craters on the moon
  • Moons of Jupiter
  • Phases of Venus
  • Sunspots
  • Milky Way made up of stars

http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/starry/galileo.html

http://www.pacifier.com/~tpope/index.htm

star party in 1609
Star Party in 1609

"Vies des Savants Illustres" by Louis Figuier (Paris, 1870)

let s jump back just 40 years
Let’s jump back just 40 years…
  • Amateur telescopes and CCD cameras
    • Can now take better pictures than professional observatories did
    • Still contribute large amounts of supplemental data to ongoing professional research
then now
Then & now

1967 “best” professional picture (Kitt Peak)

ATMoB/NSAAC member John Boudreau, taken in 2006

http://www.spacescenes.com/

The Explosion of Science, Meredeth Press

exoplanets
Exoplanets
  • First one (confirmed) discovered in1992
  • Current confirmed count is 228
  • November’s announcement not the first ones to be photographed
    • Just the least controversial

http://exoplanets.org/

slide15
To better understand these newest pictures we need to look at how planets may be formed
  • …and to understand that we really have to look at how stars form as well
orion nebula
Orion Nebula
  • Referred to as a “Stellar Nursery”
  • Large (25 light years in size) cloud of dust and gas about 1270 light years away
  • About 700 stars being formed
    • Ages between 10,000 and 100,000 years
slide25
If our theories about planet formation are right we expect to see new stars ringed with dust
  • We see just that looking at Fomalhaut
    • About 25 light years from Earth
    • About twice the mass of our Sun
    • 100 to 300 million years old
    • A coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope was used to block the star’s light in this picture so we can see the disc of material around it
    • Planets are somewhere in size between Neptune and 3 times the size of Jupiter
at the same time that fomalhaut s planet was announced
At the same time that Fomalhaut’s planet was announced…
  • A different set of scientists released this picture of a star called HR 8799 (in the constellation Pegasus)
  • Used a different technique call Adaptive Optics to remove the star’s light
  • 129 light years away
  • About 1.5 times the size of our sun
  • 3 planets about 7 to 10 times the mass of Jupiter
    • The star is brighter, so even though they are farther from the star than our own Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus, temperatures on the planets would be similar
credits
Credits
  • Pictures
    • New stars: http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/Media/releases/ssc2005-22/ssc2005-22b.shtml
    • Hubble Telescope
    • http://www.solarviews.com/
  • Sound effects: http://freesound.iua.upf.edu/i
  • Music:
    • Joe Satriani: Hill of the Skull
    • Ozric Tentacles: Dance of the Loomi, There’s a Planet Here
    • Talking Heads: Once in a Lifetime
    • B52s: Planet Claire, There’s a Moon in the Sky Called the Moon
    • Andras Schiff/Mozart: Ah, vous dirai-je, Maman
    • Zero 7: Polaris
    • Smashmouth: Who’s There
  • Animations:
    • NASA
    • Hubble Telescope
    • Solar system formation http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/