Year 9 Space; the final frontier.
Today; 4th June • Lesson 1; The Solar System.
The solar system • There are 8 planets and one dwarf planet in our solar system. • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. • Each planet orbits the Sun, which doesn’t move.
Remember. • My • Very • Energetic • Mother • Jumps • Swiftly • Up • Netball • Poles
The Sun The sun is a star that lives at the center of the Solar System. Its huge gravity holds the planets in place. It is made of plasma (the 4th state of matter) which gives out photons as nuclear fission occurs. Hydrogen becomes helium, which becomes lithium etc. With each fission energy is released.
The energy that is given out is heat and light energies. • Our sun is both a medium sized and medium temperature star. • Our star still enough hydrogen to keep under going fission for millions of years before it becomes a supernova.
The Solar System The SunThe sun is a star that lives at the centre of the Solar System. Its huge gravity holds the planets in place. The planetsThe planets all revolve around the Sun. There are nine in total - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. MoonsMoons rotate around their parent planet. Earth has one moon, but some planets have over 30. Only Mercury and Venus do not have any moons.
Jupiter Saturn Uranus
AsteroidsAsteroids are rocky bits of debris up to 1,000km (620 miles) across. Most live in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. They are the remnants from early planets that collided and were torn apart. CometsComets are dirty snowballs of ice and dust that revolve around the Sun in long orbits. When they approach the Sun their dark surface absorbs sunlight and they heat up, causing the ice beneath it to evaporate. The gas and dust escape leaving a trail of gas behind them, which looks like a tail. Recent comets to fly-by the Sun include Halley, Hale-Bopp and Ikeya-Zhang. Meteor showers Meteor showers are caused by debris from a comet burning up in our atmosphereThis produces spectacular shooting stars which blaze across the night sky
The Planets Use the table below to answer questions 1 and 2.
Questions: • 1. Name the following: • a) The hottest planet? • b) The smallest planet? • c) The largest planet? • d) The planet that it would be hardest to jump on? • 2. It takes 1 year (365 days) for the Earth to make a complete journey around the sun. How many Earth years does Jupiter take to make a complete journey around the sun? • 3. Mercury is much closer to the sun than Venus, but Venus is hotter than Mercury. Why? • 4. Write two differences between a planet and a star. Venus Mercury Jupiter Jupiter (4380 / 365 = 12 Earth Years) Venus’s atmosphere is mainly carbon dioxide. This traps the Sun’s heat (by the Greenhouse effect) making it hotter than Mercury. • Planets orbit the sun • Planets don’t have their own light source
Galaxies Our sun is just one of 100,000 million stars that make up the Milky Way galaxy. If it was possible to look at the Milky Way from above, you would see that our Sun is located on an arm of this spiral galaxy. There are at least 20 galaxies relatively closely grouped with the Milky Way, the nearest of which is the Andromeda galaxy. Even so it is still an enormous distance away – over 2 million light years! Beyond this group of galaxies there are billions more, each containing millions more stars. The Milky Way
Diamond core!?! • The universe's biggest showoff actually used to be a star, and sometimes the debris that's left over after the star dies starts a second career as a planet. In this case, Blingworld started off life as one of two parts of a binary star. The larger twin supernova-ed. What was left behind was a pulsar, and a white dwarf. The dwarf stabilized just far enough away from its former brother to lose matter to the bully but to keep its carbon core.
Today; 9th June • Lesson 3; The atmosphere & global warming.
Today; • Lesson 5; Celestial rotations.
The Earth’s rotation. • The Earth makes a rotation around its axis every 24 hours. • The Earth takes 364.25 days to make one rotation around the sun. • The moon takes 28 days to orbit the Earth. • But what does this all mean?? • http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es0408/es0408page01.cfm?chapter_no=04
24 hours: 1 day • The time it takes for the Earth to do one rotations about its axis is a day. • Which ever side is facing the Sun- day. • The other side- night.
364.25 days: 1 year • The time it takes for the Earth to complete one orbit of the Sun, is one year.
Seasons • As the Earth is on a 23.5o tilt different parts of the Earth are closer to the Sun at different points in the orbit. • Glue in handout.
Summer Summer Summer Horizon The Sun stays lower in Winter, so the day’s are shorter. Winter Winter Set Winter Rise
Solstice • The solstice is when the point on the Earth where you are, is furthest or closet to the Sun, during the orbit. • This happens in summer and winter.
Equinox • Halfway in between the solstices, the Earth is neither tilted directly towards nor directly away from the Sun. • This happens in spring and autumn.
Phases of the Moon. • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Lunar_libration_with_phase_Oct_2007.gif • Moon match up activity.
Tides and the Moon. • The gravitational force of the Moon and Sun pulls at the whole earth. This attraction causes the water in the oceans and lakes to move slowly up and down causing tides.
Even though the Earth is being pulled on one side, the water of the oceans bulge out on both sides because of the difference in the Moon’s gravity on the surface of the Earth. Tides also vary during a month.
Spring and Neap tides. • Spring Tides: 2-3 days after a new or full moon. Caused by the sun pulling in the same direction as the Moon, High tides are higher and low tides are lower. • Neap Tides: just after the quarter moons. Caused by the sun pulling at right angles to the moon. The tides are less high and less low than spring tides.
Summary • Day and night- how it happens & how long. • Seasons- how do they happen? • Equinox & solstice- what are they? • Moon & tides- how does that work?
Today • Lesson 6; The Sun, other stars and their constellations.
The Sun is a star like the others that we see at night. The Sun is not burning like a fire – it is a huge controlled hydrogen bomb. The core is at a temperature of 14 million oC, and a very high pressure. The hydrogen atoms are broken into pieces, which smash into each other at high speed. This can make the pieces of hydrogen atoms join together to become helium. This also produces gamma radiation, which travels outward and heat and light is radiated into space in all directions. Stars In the fusion process, some of the hydrogen’s mass is turned into energy. At least 4 million tonnes of hydrogen are used up every second on the Sun. (It has such a large mass that it will last for about another 5 billion years).
Stars come in a variety of sizes. The brightest are 100 000 times brighter than our sun and the dimmest 100 000 times less bright. To measure the distances between stars it is useful to use a unit which is very large. We use the distance travelled by light in a certain time. This is known as a light year. The closest star to us is 4.2 light years away and the furthest discovered stars are 10 billion light years away. Stars are actually very faint lights because they are far away. During the day we can not see them as the Sun is so powerful. Even at night, the lights from cities and towns make it difficult to see them.
Constellations • A constellation is a group of stars that are connected together to form a figure or picture. The term is also traditionally and less formally used to mean any group of stars visibly related to each other, if they are considered as a fixed configuration or pattern in a particular culture.