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Robotic Hands. Mimicking the Human Hand April 24, 2013. David French. Types. Prosthetic. Image Courtesy of Luke Skywalker http://www.scifi-review.net/teenager-gets-a-bionic-hand-that-luke-skywalker-would-envy.html. Types. Non-Prosthetic. http://www.vrealities.com/shadowhand.html.

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robotic hands

Robotic Hands

Mimicking the Human Hand

April 24, 2013

  • David French
types
Types
  • Prosthetic

Image Courtesy of Luke Skywalker

http://www.scifi-review.net/teenager-gets-a-bionic-hand-that-luke-skywalker-would-envy.html

types1
Types
  • Non-Prosthetic

http://www.vrealities.com/shadowhand.html

applications
Applications
  • Prosthetic
  • Humanoid robots
  • Variety of small-scale dexterous operations
    • Working in inaccessible or hazardous environments, e.g. radiation, chemical or biological hazards,disabling IEDs
  • Research
    • Rehabilitation
    • Ergonomics
how it relates to our course
How It Relates to Our Course
  • Doesn’t usually use inverse kin, differential kin, or trajectory generation since the joints are usually controlled in manually mode.
  • Motors are sized based on desired torques/speeds, and are very constrained by physical size.
  • Up to 20 DOF, multiple independent kinematic branches (e.g. fingers)
examples

Examples

http://blogredbox.blogspot.com/2011/09/geeky-gadgets-newsletter_22.html

shadow hand
Shadow Hand
  • Shadow Hand
    • comparable to a human hand in size and shape, and reproduces all of its DOF
    • 24 joints altogether, with 20 DOF
    • Not as strong as a real human hand

YouTube link

shadow hand1
Shadow Hand
  • Available in both electric motor and pneumatic muscle driven models
    • 20 motors or Air Muscles
  • Every joint has a Hall effect sensor for positional feedback
  • Every actuator has a force/pressure sensor
  • Can add third-party tactile sensors
  • $100K - $250K total cost
shadow hand2
Shadow Hand

 First, Middle, Ring finger

1 Distal - Middle

2 Middle - Proximal

3 Proximal - Knuckle

4 Knuckle - Palm

 Little Finger

1 Distal - Middle

2 Middle - Proximal

3 Proximal - Knuckle

4 Knuckle - Metacarpal

5 Metacarpal - Palm

 Thumb

1 Distal - Middle

2 Middle - Proximal 1

3 Middle - Proximal 2

4 Proximal - Palm 1

5 Proximal - Palm 2

 Wrist

1 Palm - Wrist

2 Wrist - Forearm

http://www.vrealities.com/shadowhand.html

shadow hand3
Shadow Hand
  • Controlled with a 22 sensor CyberGlove
shadow hand4
Shadow Hand
  • Integration with BioTac tactile sensor
    • forces
    • micro-vibrations
    • temperature
    • estimate radius of curvature of a contacted object
    • discriminate edges, corners, and flat surfaces
    • detect slip
    • discriminate objects based on their texture, compliance, and thermal properties
sandia hand
Sandia Hand

http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2012-08/video-robot-hand-runs-cellphone-parts-can-replace-its-own-digits

YouTube Link

  • Affordable: $10K
  • Mostly produced with parts found in cellphones
  • Digits attach to palm using magnets
  • Can replace its own fingers
stanford hand
Stanford Hand

Video Link

http://www.engadget.com/2012/08/04/rethinking-the-robot-hand-at-harvard-video/

  • Single actuator
  • Equal force at all digits, regardless of configuration or shape of object
  • Digits bend and twist
  • Extremely durable
darpa hand pit crew example
DARPA Hand(Pit Crew Example)

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/30/science/making-robots-mimic-the-human-hand.html

Video Link

squse
SQUSE
  • 16 joints, 22 actuators
  • Flesh-toned silicone rubber skin cover

http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/engineering/robots/6-innovative-robot-hands#slide-2

YouTube Link

universal gripper
Universal Gripper
  • Balloon-like sack filled with coffee grounds
  • To pick, push gripper sack onto object, then apply vacuum to the sack

http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/engineering/robots/6-innovative-robot-hands#slide-5

Video Link

equipment
Equipment
  • Links and joints
  • DC Motors / pneumatic motors or ‘muscles’
  • Position sensors
  • Tactile (touch) and temperature sensors
  • Controllers
  • Microcontroller (e.g. Arduino)
  • Software framework, e.g. Robot Operating System (ROS), which provides packages for motion, control, planning, face recognition, etc.
controls
Controls
  • Neural interfaces
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ppILwXwsMng
controls1
Controls
  • Muscle-sensing
    • Example: Bebionic3 myoelectric prosthetic hand (video link)
    • Example: iLimb Pulse hand prosthesis (video link)
  • Joystick, keyboard, mouse, other controls

Bebionic3

http://www.dvice.com/archives/2012/11/luke-skywalkers.php

controls2
Controls
  • Position-sensing gloves

http://robotswillstealyourjob.tumblr.com/

limitations
Limitations
  • Limited range of motion
  • Limited strength/power
  • High cost
  • Manual control is often slow, if not difficult
  • Must be mounted on an appropriate fixture to be useful (e.g. human stub, robotic arm).
  • “Computer vision systems have worked only in highly structured environments on a very limited set of objects.”[1]

[1] http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/30/science/making-robots-mimic-the-human-hand.html

costs
Costs
  • Build your own ‘Grasping With Straws’ robot - $100-$150
  • http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/Robotics_p003.shtml?gclid=CNmSvpjt3rYCFQ9eQgodk1oANg
costs1
Costs
  • MechaTERobot Hand - $900
costs2
Costs
  • Professional-grade commercial robotic hands
    • Usually $10K or much more [2]
    • DARPA pit crew hand: potentially $3,000 in quantities of 1,000 or more[2]
    • $10K for Sandia Hand
    • $100K - $250K for Shadow Hand

[2] http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/30/science/making-robots-mimic-the-human-hand.html

practical applications
Practical Applications
  • Prosthetic
  • Humanoid robots
  • Variety of small-scale dexterous operations
    • Working in inaccessible or hazardous environments, e.g. radiation, chemical or biological hazards,disabling IEDs
technical advancements
Technical Advancements
  • Shadow Air Muscles
    • Lightweight(10 g and up)
    • Little stiction
    • Flexible
      • work whentwisted axiallyor bent aroundcorners
    • High power toweight ratio
technical advancements1
Technical Advancements
  • Improved control interfaces, especially neural interfaces
  • Accuracy in mimicking the human hand
  • Dexterity
  • Modular designs
  • Durable designs
  • Greater strength-to-weight ratios
  • Lower cost designs
industries impacted
Industries Impacted
  • Prosthetics
  • Rehabilitation
  • Future humanoid robot applications
  • Hazardous/dexterous operations
  • Ergonomics
questions
Questions?

http://www.123rf.com