lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods
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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS EGYPT PART 1: FLOODS. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . EGYPT. POLITICAL MAP OF EGYPT (Note: Aswan).

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lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSEGYPTPART 1: FLOODS

Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA 

slide4
Egypt has frequent earthquakes, floods, flash floods and landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.
slide5
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN EGYPT

FLOODS

GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES

STORMS

EARTHQUAKES

HIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER NRESILIENT

DUST STORMS

ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

natural phenomena that cause disasters
Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters

Planet Earth’s atmospheric-hydrospheric-lithospheric interactions create situations favorable for FLOODS

the nile river1
THE NILE RIVER
  • The ancient Egyptians thought of the annual floods as the annual coming of the god Hapi.
  • They did not realize that the annual flood cycle happened after rainfall in the mountains to the south swelled the tributaries and small rivers that form the northward-flowing Nile River.
flooding is a part of the egyptian culture
FLOODING IS A PART OF THE EGYPTIAN CULTURE
  • The annual flooding of the Nile River (Arabic: عيد وفاء النيل‎), a natural cycle, has been a part of Egyptian culture since ancient times.
  • It is celebrated annually as a holiday (known as Wafaa El-Nil) for two weeks starting August 15.
the annual flood cycle
THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE
  • The first indications of the rise of the Nile River and the beginning of the flood cycle are typically seen as early as the beginning of June.
  • A steady increase in water level occurs until the middle of July.
  • The Nile continues to rise until the beginning of September, when the level remains stationary for a period of about three weeks, sometimes a little less. In October it rises again, and reaches its highest level. From this period it begins to subside, and though it rises yet once more and reaches occasionally its former highest point, it sinks steadily until the month of June when it is again at its lowest level
the annual flood cycle continued
THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE (Continued)
  • The water level in the Nile continues to rise until the beginning of September, then the level remains stationary for a period of about three weeks.
  • In October the water rises again and reaches its highest level.
the annual flood cycle continued1
THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE (Continued)
  • From October to June, the water level in the Nile continues to subside until it once again reaches its lowest level in June.
slide17
HAZARDS

EXPOSURE

VULNERABILITY

LOCATION

ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISK

RISK

flood hazards aka potential disaster agents
FLOOD HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)
  • TOO MUCH WATER DISCHARGED WITHIN THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM TO BE ACCOMMODATED NORMALLY IN THE REGIONAL WATER CYCLE
  • EROSION
  • SCOUR
  • MUDFLOWS
slide19

A DISASTER CAN HAPPENWHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF A FLOOD INTERACT WITH EGYPT’S COMMUNITIES

slide20
CAUSES OF RISK

LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN

INUNDATION

INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS DAMAGE FROM WATER

FLOODS

WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS)

CASE HISTORIES

EROSION AND MUDFLOWS

CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER

slide21

The annual flood cycle of the Nile River has made the difference between living and dying for thousands of years in Egypt.

the nile as a source of life
THE NILE AS A SOURCE OF LIFE
  • The annual floods of the Nile River brought nutrient-rich silt from the mountains to the Nile delta, which produced bountiful crops.
the nile as a source of death
THE NILE AS A SOURCE OF DEATH
  • When the water levels in the Nile River are too high, flooding prevents deposition of the nutrient-rich silt in the Nile delta, reducing agricultural output.
  • When water levels are too low for flooding, the result is low agricultural output and possible starvation.
a disaster is

A DISASTER is ---

--- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community torespond without external help  when three continuums: 1)  people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., floods, earthquakes,…) intersect at a point in space and time.

slide27
Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
the reasons are
THE REASONS ARE . . .
  • When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST.
the reasons are1
THE REASONS ARE . . .
  • The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence—high-probability of adverse consequences event.
the reasons are2
THE REASONS ARE . . .
  • The community has NODISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.
the reasons are3
THE REASONS ARE . . .
  • The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
the reasons are4
THE REASONS ARE . . .
  • The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
floods in egypt are inevitable and damaging
FLOODS IN EGYPT ARE INEVITABLE AND DAMAGING
  • ---SO, DON’T WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BECOMING FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENT.
slide35
FLOOD HAZARDS
  • INVENTORY
  • VULNERABILITY
  • LOCATION
  • PREPAREDNESS
  • PROTECTION
  • FORECASTS/SCENARIOS
  • EMERGENCY RESPONSE
  • RECOVERY and
  • RECONSTRUCTION

FL\OOD RISK

POLICY OPTIONS

ACCEPTABLE RISK

RISK

UNACCEPTABLE RISK

FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE

DATA BASES AND INFORMATION

EGYPT’S COMMUNITIES

HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS

strategic collaboration i e working together on a common goal for becoming flood disaster resilient

STRATEGIC COLLABORATION (I.E., WORKING TOGETHER ON A COMMON GOAL) FOR BECOMING FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENT

lessons learned about disaster resilience
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE

ALL FLOODS

PREPAREDNESS FOR ALL OF THE LIKELY HAZARDS AND RISKS IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE

lessons learned about disaster resilience1
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE

ALL FLOODS TECHNOLOGIES THAT FACILITATE STRATEGIC COLLABORATION ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

lessons learned about disaster resilience2
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE

ALL FLOODS

TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

lessons learned about disaster resilience3
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE

ALL FLOODS

PROTECTION OF A COMMUNITY’S PEOPLE, BUILDINGS, & INFRASTRUCTURE AGAINST LOSS OF FUNCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE

the aswan high dam

THE ASWAN HIGH DAM

After ten years of construction, the Aswan High Dam in Egypt was completed on July 21, 1970.

slide44
The Aswan High Dam, located on the Nile River just north of the border between Egypt and Sudan, was built to control the frequent cycles of flooding and drought within Egypt.
the aswan high dam3
THE ASWAN HIGH DAM
  • At 364 feet (111 meters) high and about 2.4 miles (3.8 kilometers) wide, the Aswan High Dam was a marvel of construction in 1970, costing about $1 billion to build.
electricity
ELECTRICITY
  • In addition to preventing flooding of the Nile River, the Aswan High Dam brought electricity to households and villages across Egypt that had never had it.
  • This dam's 12 turbines are capable of generating ten billion kilowatt-hours annually
fresh water
FRESH WATER
  • The reservoir (Lake Nasser) with a gross capacity of 136,927,000 acre-feet (168.9 billion cubic meters). behind the Aswan High Dam provides a source of fresh water for the Egyptian people during drought years.
slide50

Unfortunately, before the dam could be built, 90,000 of Egypt’s poor and Sudan’s Nubian nomads had to be relocated

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