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The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey: Preliminary Results and Lessons Learned

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  1. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey: Preliminary Results and Lessons Learned Mauro Giavalisco Space Telescope Science Institute and the GOODS team STScI/ESO/ST-ECF/JPL/SSC/Gemini/Boston U./U. Ariz./U. Fla./U. Hawai/UCLA/UCSC/IAP/Saclay/Yale/AUI

  2. The GOODS Treasury/Legacy Mission Aim:to establish deep reference fields with public data sets from X-ray through radio wavelengths for the study of galaxy and AGN evolution of the broadest accessible range of redshift and cosmic time. GOODS unites the deepest survey data from NASA’s Great Observatories (HST, Chandra, SIRTF), ESA’s XMM-Newton, and the great ground-based observatories. Primary science goals: • The star formation and mass assembly history of galaxies • The growth distribution of dark matter structures • Supernovae at high redshifts and the cosmic expansion • Census of energetic output from star formation and supermassive black holes • Measurements or limits on the discrete source component of the EBL Raw data public upon acquisition; reduced data released as soon as possible

  3. GOODS Space HST Treasury (PI: M. Giavalisco) B, V, i, z (3, 2.5, 2.5, 5 orbits) 400 orbits Δθ = 0.05 arcsec, or ~0.3 kpc at 0.5<z<5 0.1 45 days cadence for Type Ie Sne at z~1 SIRTF Legacy (PI: M. Dickinson) 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8, 24 μm 576 hr 0.1 Chandra (archival): 0.5 to 8 KeV Δθ < 1 arcsec on axis XMM-Newton (archival) GOODS Ground ESO, institutional partner (PI C. Cesarsky), CDF-S Full spectroscopic coverage in CDF-S Ancillary optical and near-IR imaging Keck, access through GOODS’ CoIs Deep spectroscopic coverage Subaru, access through GOODS’ CoI Large-area BVRI imaging NOAO support to Legacy & Treasury Very deep U-band imaging Gemini Optical spectroscopy, HDF-N Near-IR spectroscopy, HDF-S ATCA, ultra deep (5-10 mJy) 3-20 cm imaging, of CDF-S VLA, ultra deep HDF-N (+Merlin, WSRT) JCMT + SCUBA sub-mm maps of HDF-N A Synopsis of GOODS

  4. The GOODS “space” fields The GOODS HST fields: HDF-North & CDF-South ~33x solid angle of combined HDF-N+S central fields ~ 4x solid angle of combined HDF-N+S flanking fields ~2.5x solid angle of WFPC2 Groth Strip ~22 x 35 h65-1 Mpc comoving transverse extent at z = 3 Both fields at high galactic & ecliptic latitude, with low zodiacal & galactic foregrounds, N(HI), stellar & radio contamination, etc. • KEY FEATURE: Simultaneous occurrence of : • Area………………………0.1 sq.deg • Sensitivity………………galaxies and AGN up to z~6-7 • Angular resolution……0.5 kpc at 0.5<z<5 • Wavelength coverage…0.4 to 24 mm

  5. We almost give you the Full Moon

  6. GOODS/ACS field layout 5 epochs/field, spaced by 45 days, simultaneous V,i,z bands CDF-S: Aug ‘02 - Feb ‘03 HDF-N: Nov ’02 - May ’03 • Four more epochs in HDF-N by Aug 04 • Five more epochs in both fields in ~ 1 year

  7. ACS B = 27.2 V = 27.5 i = 26.8 z = 26.7 ∆m ~ 0.7-0.8 AB mag; S/N=10 Diffuse source, 0.5” diameter Add ~ 0.9 mag for stellar sources WFPC2 B = 27.9 V = 28.2 I = 27.6

  8. 5-Epoch stack

  9. SIRTF Imaging 0.55 24.5 0.55 24.5 0.55 24.5 0.55 24.5 0.55 24.5 GOODS sensitivity 5-σ limiting flux μJy 5-σ limiting AB mag

  10. GOODS-South [SST/IRAC & HST/ACS] SST IRAC 4.5 ACS F850LP 3.6+ 4.5+ 5.8 3.6+5.8

  11. Unattenuated Spectrum Spectrum Attenuated by IGM B435 V606 z850 Galaxies at High Redshift B435V606i775z850 • Theory predicts that dark matter structures form at z~20-30 • It does not clearly predict galaxies, because we do not fully understand star formation • We need to push empirical studies of galaxy evolution to the highest redshifts • We collected the deepest and largest quality samples of galaxies at z~4 through ~6 Z~4

  12. LBG color selection B-dropouts, z~4 V-dropouts, z~5

  13. ACS/grism, Keck/LRIS & VLT/FORS2 observations confirm z=5.83 S123 #5144: m(z) = 25.3 Galaxies at z~6 (~6.8% of the cosmic age) Dickinson et al. 2003

  14. B435 V606 i775 z850 Galaxies at z~6

  15. Observed redshift distribution Z=5.78 Z=6.24? V Z=5.83 Spectra from Bunker et al. 2003; Stanway et al. 2003; Vanzella et al. 2004 and the GOODS Team B i

  16. [OIII] [OIII] serendip. LBG spectroscopy3 < z < 6: examples Dawson, Stern, Spinrad, Madau et al.: 1 ok night with DEIMOS spectrograph, May 2003 targeting B, V, and i-dropout selected LBG candidates Good success for B- and V-dropouts considering sky conditions No additional secure confirmations of i-dropouts

  17. [OIII] …some more examples…

  18. …more examples…

  19. The history of the cosmic star formation activity: • We found that at z~6 the cosmic star formation activity was nearly as vigorous as it was at its peak, between z~2 and z~3. • Dust obscuration not truly constrained • Escaping UV radiation only a • small fraction • Large progress with SIRTF • Selection effects • Estimated from detailed numerical simulations: • Found the input LF that minimizes c2 for colors, sizes and n(m) Giavalisco et al. 2003

  20. Still uncertainty on measures • LF still not well constrained • Clean z~6 color selection still missing • Cosmic variance still not understood • Will use SST data to define z~6 sample • Will double exp time in GOODS Bouwens et al. 2004

  21. Area is key at very high redshift Cosmic variance is empirically unknown, but obviously important Very dangerous to base conclusions on small fields (eg. UDF), no matter how deep Also, care needed to match samples with largely different sensitivity IR-based selection needed (IRAC) Down to z(AB)<27 and S/N>=5 SGOODS~ 1 galaxies/arcmin2 SUDF~ 1.5 galaxies/arcmin2

  22. HUDF vs. GOODS GOODS CDFS – 13 orbits HUDF – 400 orbits

  23. Morphology of i-band dropouts Candidates for galaxies at redshifts greater than 6

  24. Defining i-band dropouts Selecting UDF samples with same criteria as the GOODS samples (eg. S/N(B,v)<~2) misses lots of galaxies, including a number of spectroscopically confirmed ones Color selection using IR photometry is critical Equally important: we need larger multi-l surveys to constraint SF at z>6

  25. rest-optical & -IR at z~6 • SST IRAC detections of z~6 galaxies => stellar population & dust fitting possible ch1, 3.6mm lrest=5300A ch2, 4.5mm lrest=6600A Dickinson et al in prep

  26. Did we find the sources Responsible for the Reionization at z~6? Stiavelli, Fall & Panagia 2004

  27. Evolution of M* ? Possible evidence of evolution of M* Here absolute magnitudes are Rs band (~1700 Ang rest) at z=3 (not 10 pc!) Slope alpha is assumed same as at z~3; real error most certainly larger, because of covariance. Note that alpha~1.5-1.6 for UV LF of late type galaxies, even in the local and intermediate redshift universe. Ground [UnGRs] GOODS Giavalisco et al. 2004, in prep.

  28. UV-Optical Color-Magnitude Diagrams at z ~ 3 and z ~ 4 Papovich et al. 2003 Rest-frame m(1600) - B Rest-frame B-band

  29. Luminosity Density versus Color and Redshift Papovich et al. 2003 U- and B- dropouts have similar UV-Optical color-magnitude "trends”. Rest-frame UV luminosity density roughly comparable at z ~ 3 and 4. Increase of ~33% in the rest-frame B-band luminosity density from z ~ 4 to 3. UV-Optical color reddens from z ~ 4 to 3, which implies an increase in the stellar-mass/light ratio. Suggests that the stellar mass is increasing by > 33% growth in B-band luminosity density. increase of ~33%

  30. Implications for Galaxy Evolution Dickinson, Papovich, Ferguson, & Budavari 2003

  31. Implications for Galaxy Evolution Dickinson, Papovich, Ferguson, & Budavari 2003 GOODS; Papovich et al. 2003

  32. PAH + continuum (24 mm) Far IR (GTO) Optical + near-IR + nebular lines UV Stellar mass & star formation Mass: Rest-frame near-IR (e.g., rest-frame K-band at z~3), provides best photometric measure of total stellar content • Reduces range of M/L(l) for different stellar populations • Minimizes effects of dust obscuration Star formation: Use many independent indicators for to calibrate star formation (obscured & open) in “ordinary” starbursts (e.g. LBGs) at z > 2. • mid- to far-IR (SIRTF/MIPS); rest-frame UV (e.g, U-band); radio (VLA, ATCA); sub-mm (SCUBA, SEST); nebular lines (spectroscopy) Stellar mass fitting Measuring star formation

  33. Testing the Hierarchical Cosmology Hierarchical models predict asimple scaling relationof galaxy size with redshift: • Baryonic matter of mass-fraction md settles into disks with a fraction jd of the halo angular momenta. The disk radii are • The dark-matter halo radii grow as

  34. Expectations • Size evolution at fixed circular velocity: • R ~ H-1(z) • Size evolution at fixed mass: • R ~ H-2/3(z) • Log-normal size distribution proportional to the spin parameter • Disk-like morphologies • Fall & Efstathiou 1980; Mo, Mao & White 1998; Dalcanton, Spergel & Summers 1997; Bowens & Silk 2002

  35. The Evolution of galaxy size • First measures at these redshifts • Testing key tenets of the theory • We found that galaxies grow hierarchically • Major improvements with full-dept ACS • Will add point at z~6 R~H(z)-2/3 Standard ruler R~H(z)-1 Ferguson et al. 2003

  36. Proto Spirals or Proto Ellipticals? The theory predicts that early galaxies are disks. At z~ 4 we found a mix of disks and spheroids The z~4 galaxies do not seem to be primeval. Next: the z~5 and z~6 galaxies C  5log r80/r20 disks B dropouts z~4 disks spheroids spheroids Ferguson et al. 2003

  37. Morphology of Lyman Break Galaxies at z~4 Sersic profile fits and Sersic indices: [Ravindranath et al. 2004] Irregulars: (n < 0.5) Disks: (0.5 > n > 1.0)

  38. Morphology of Lyman Break Galaxies at z~4 Bulges (n > 3.0) Central compact component / point sources? (n = 5.0)

  39. LBGs at z~4-5: disks or spheroids? Theory predicts that when they form undisturbed, galaxies are disks. Data show that a significant number of z~4-5 LBGs are disks; spheroids are present, too. Ravindranath et al. 2004

  40. LBGs’ morphology There appears to be a correlation between UV luminosity and size of LBGs at z~4 and z~3

  41. Rotation curves at z~2 GOODS large area and angular resolution enabled the first systematic kinematical studies of galaxies at z~2 Erb et al. 2004 Steidel et al. 2004 13 GOODS-N galaxies morphologically selected

  42. “Rotation curves” at z~2 Only 3 out of 13 galaxies show evidence of coherent velocity field/shear What is the relationship between morphology and kinematics? Seeing is crucial!! Imagine what JWST will do Erb et al. 2004 Steidel et al. 2004 HDF-BX1397

  43. Galaxy kinematics at z~2 Compact galaxies appear to have larger kinematics Erb et al. 2004; Steidel et al. 2004

  44. Ravindranath et al. 2003 • Sersic indices n<2 • Rest-frame MB <-19.5 • Photometric redshifts

  45. Disk galaxy evolution from GOODSRavindranath et al. 2003 Number-densities are relatively constant to z~1 Tendency for smaller sizes at z~1 (30% smaller)

  46. Using Sne to Measure the Evolution of SF Dahlem et al. 2004, in press Type Ia Core Collapse

  47. GOODS weak lensing program:mapping dark matter in space and time • Galaxy-galaxy shear • GOODS is measuring • Shear vs. redshift • Shear on angular scales < 2 arcmin • Measure dark-matter halo profiles • Evolution of M/L with redshift • Test the “galaxy-in-peak” paradigm • Shear is dominated by non-linear fluctuations • Insensitive to CDM large-scale power spectrum (shape and normalization): complementary to WMAP • Sensitive to cosmic energy contents through angular-diameter distance and growth-rate of perturbations

  48. Weak Lensing: Mapping the Growth of Dark Matter • Galaxy-galaxy shear around bright galaxies • Direct measure of dark matter • HST-unique science at these and larger redshifts • SDSS-like quality measures at z~0.5 • Huge improvements over previous HST surveys (e.g. MDS) SDSS at z~0.1 Lenses: 19<z<22; Sources: 24<z<26.5 Casertano et al. 2004

  49. Clustering at z~3 • Measured w(q) at z~ 3 from a very large sample of U-band dropouts (2300 galaxies) • Selected from KPNO (U) and Subaru + Supreme (BR) large-area (25x25 arcmin), deep images (Capak et al. 2003, part of GOODS) • Sample goes down to R<26 • Spatial correlation length is smaller than that of brighter samples at the same redshifts Lee et al. 2004, in preparation

  50. Clustering at High Redshift New measure consistent with presence of clustering segregation • Notes: • r0 from Limber inversion of w(q). • GOODS redshift distribution function from numerical simulations GOODS Adelberger et al. (1998, 2002) Giavalisco et al. (1998) Giavalisco & Dickinson (2001)