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Civil Rights and Equality Movement The Turning Tide in the 1960s
Brief Introduction to the African – American Movement You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VsZVxH3JJ3Q
Focus on the following questions: The fight for equality had begun many years before, but had much truly changed since the post – Civil War era? Stirrings of Change
What were African – Americans fighting for? Why are these rights so important? Do you believe that true equality of races has been achieved in the United States? In the world?
Timeline Recap 1700 – 1790: Several instances of black slave revolts; in 1777, the Constitution of Vermont (a sovereign state at the time) is the first future state to abolish slavery. 1790 – 1810: Manumission of slaves in some free states; in 1808 the importation of slaves into America is banned.
Timeline Recap 1839: Slave revolt on La Amistad. 1861 – 1865: Tens of thousands of enslaved African – American slaves escape to the Union lines for freedom; the Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect. 1865: The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution goes into effect, abolishing slavery.
Timeline Recap 1860s: The Ku Klux Klan is formed in Pulaski, Tennessee by white Confederate veterans. 1870: The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution guarantees the right of male citizens of the United States to vote regardless of race, color or previous condition of servitude.
Where does the root of revolt begin? Reconstruction? Jim Crow Laws? Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King?
1954: Brown vs. Board of Education: unconstitutional to separate school children by race. 1955: Rosa Parks refuses to give her seat up on the bus. Would you have done the same? 1950s
1955: Montgomery Bus Boycott. 1957: State of Arkansas challenges the Federal Government in regards to “Little Rock Nine”, which forces Pres. Eisenhower to send the National Guard to escort black students to school.
1961: Civil activists calling themselves “Freedom Riders” ride buses into segregated terminals throughout the South. 1963: A demonstration in Alabama led by Martin Luther King Jr. is broken up by the police force, who use violence to get their point across (clubs, fire hoses, and dogs). 1960s
As a result of the Alabama police violence, Pres. Kennedy is furious and introduces a new Civil Rights Bill which outlaws segregation. August, 1963: 100th anniversary of the Proclamation of Emancipation. March on Washington by 200, 000 demonstrators, where King gives his now famous “I have a dream…” speech. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iEMXaTktUfA
1964: Martin Luther King Jr. wins Nobel Peace Prize. July 2, 1964: The new Civil Rights Act is passed (the strongest passed since reconstruction). 1965: “March for Freedom” begins. 1965: Voting Rights Act is passed, granting equal voting rights to African - Americans.
1968: Martin Luther King is assassinated. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gigsZH5HlJA 1972: Congress approves Equal Rights Amendment granting equal rights. 2008: Barack Obama is elected 44th president of the United States.