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Civil Rights Movement. Chapter 23 Notes. Section 1- Early Demands for Equality. 1) What is the difference between de jure segregation and de facto segregation? (pp. 784-785) De jure segregation  segregation by law (such as through the Jim Crow laws)

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civil rights movement

Civil Rights Movement

Chapter 23 Notes

slide3

1) What is the difference between de jure segregation and de facto segregation? (pp. 784-785)

    • De jure segregation segregation by law (such as through the Jim Crow laws)
    • De facto segregation segregation by norms and customs
  • 2) What tactics did CORE (Congress on Racial Equality) use? (p. 785)
    • Nonviolent methods– protests.
  • 3) Who was the first African-American to play baseball in the major leagues? (p. 785)
    • Jackie Robinson
slide4

4) What was the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)? (p.787)

    • ‘separate but equal’ is inherently unequal; segregation of public places was unconstitutional.
  • a. What prominent African-American brought the case to the Supreme Court? (p.787)
    • Thurgood Marshall
  • b. What Supreme Court case did it overturn?
    • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
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5) What happened in Little Rock, Arkansas? How did Eisenhower respond? (pp. 788-789)

    • 9 high-schoolers enrolled in all-white Central High following the Brown decision.
    • The governor used the National Guard to block the students’ entrance.
    • Eisenhower did not approve of a state defying a Supreme Court decision, so he sent in federal troops, who escorted the students into the school each day.
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6) What was the Civil Rights Act of 1957 established to investigate? (p. 789)

    • Violations of civil rights.
  • 7) What protest did Rosa Parks start? (p. 789-790)
    • Montgomery bus boycott
  • 8) How did Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. want protest to be carried out? (p. 791)
    • Non-violent
  • 9) Who formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)? From what profession were its members? (p. 791)
    • MLK, Jr. and Ralph Abernathy
    • Ministry
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10) Where did the first sit-in take place? (p. 793)

    • Greensboro, N.C.
  • 11) Ella Baker started a new activist group for students at _____________________________________________. What was it called? (p. 794)
    • Shaw University in Durham, NC
    • Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
  • 12) What was the goal of the freedom rides? (p. 795) Did they accomplish this goal? (p. 796)
    • End segregation of bus terminals in the South
    • Not immediately; however, the federal government did become involved in the civil rights movement (President Kennedy)
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13) What did James Meredith contribute to the civil rights movement? (p. 796)

    • Wanted to enroll in all-white University of Mississippi
    • Won a federal court case ordering the school to desegregate
    • Became the first African-American to graduate from Ole Miss.
  • 14) Why did the major civil rights groups organize the March on Washington? (p. 798) What was the ‘highlight’ of the rally?
    • To pressure Congress to pass a new civil rights bill;
    • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech
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13) What did James Meredith contribute to the civil rights movement? (p. 796)

    • Wanted to enroll in all-white University of Mississippi
    • Won a federal court case ordering the school to desegregate
    • Became the first African-American to graduate from Ole Miss.
  • 14) Why did the major civil rights groups organize the March on Washington? (p. 798) What was the ‘highlight’ of the rally?
    • To pressure Congress to pass a new civil rights bill;
    • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech
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15) What happened in Birmingham, Alabama following the March on Washington?

    • A bomb went off in a former SCLC headquarters, killing 4 young girls.
  • 16) Lyndon Johnson was able to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in memory of ___________________________________________. What did it establish? (p. 800)
    • John F. Kennedy;
    • Banned segregation in public accommodations; gave federal government power to desegregate schools; outlawed discrimination in employment.
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17) What was the goal of Freedom Summer, organized by SNCC? (p. 804)

    • Registering African-Americans to vote in Mississippi
  • 18) What did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 eliminate? The 24th amendment? (p. 806)
    • Literacy tests (VRA 1965)
    • Poll tax (24th)
  • 19) What did the Kerner Commission determine about the riots that broke out around the country? (p. 808)
    • Long-term racial discrimination stood as the single most important cause of violence.
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20) What movement did each of the following individuals represent? What were their goals? (pp. 808-811)

  • a. Malcolm X: Nation of Islam separation of he races; non-violence
  • b. Stokely Carmichael: “black power”; move away from nonviolence– turn to radical tactics.
  • c. Huey Newton and Bobby Seale: Black Panthers; young, African-American militancy