Asia: China, Japan, and Vietnam 600 C.E. to 1450 C.E. Originally created by Ms. Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Imperial China: Tang & Song Dynasties 618 A.D. -1279 A.D.
Reunification • For over 400 years when China was divided into three separate states, the Wei in the north, Wu in the south, and Shu in the west, the ideal of Chinese unification was not. • Chinese language, ideology, culture, and administration had remained virtually intact. • Unification was achieved under the Sui Dynasty who provided the restoration of military power, economic productivity, and administrative integrity but massive public works led to the disintegration of the Sui in a very short time.
The Rise of the Tang • The leading general of the Sui seized control of the state and under the imperial name Gaozu established the new Tang Dynsasty in 618 C.E. • Like we have seen before, when the Sui fell after over-extending itself militarily and economically, the Tang continued and even expanded the empire. • The state was now beyond China-proper and to outer China, Mongolia, Central Asia, Pakistan, and Iran. China also expanded into northern Vietnam, Korea, and culturally into Japan.
Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E. • Imperial examination system perfected. • Liberal attitude towards all religions. • Spread of Buddhism into China with Tibet now the center of Buddhism. Why? • Golden Age of foreign relations with other countries. • Japan, Korea, Persia
Tang Dynasty, 618-907 • New technologies: • Printing moveable print • Porcelain • Gunpowder • Mechanical clocks • More cosmopolitan culture. • Reestablished the safety of the Silk Road. • Tea comes into China from Southeast Asia.
Empress Wu Zetian, 624-705 • The only female Empress in China’s history who ruled alone. • Searched for outstanding individuals to attract to her court. • Construction of new irrigation systems. • Buddhism was the favored statereligion. • Financed the building of many Buddhist temples. • BUT… She appointed cruel and sadistic ministers to seek out her enemies.
Tang Culture • Buddhist religious art • World’s first pharmacopoeia • Poetry with ties to Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism • Silk Road
Foot-Binding in Tang China • Broken toes by 3 years of age. • Size 5 ½ shoe on the right
Foot-Binding Mothers bound their daughters’ feet.
Foot-Binding • For upper-class girls, it became a new custom.
Tang Legacies • The three centuries of Sui and Tang rule consolidated the theory and practice of Chinese imperial rule even to the present. • With only a few brief times in history, China has been united for a continuous period of more than fourteen centuries. • Chinese assimilation of “barbarian” tribes would define the current confines of Chinese culture and in time these barbarian tribes would rise up. • One such tribe were the Turkish Uighurs who led their army in defense of the Tang and eventually helped to led to its subsequent downfall.
Song Dynasty 960-1279 • Following the Tang collapse, warlords ruled China until the Song Dynasty reimposed centralized imperial rule. • However, the Song never built a powerful state because they never military leaders and placed much more emphasis on civil administration, industry, education, and the arts. • Civil servants would go onto to control all aspects of Chinese society including the military and large sums and salaries were levied to encourage others to adapt.
Song [Sung] Dynasty, 960-1279 C.E. • Creation of an urban, merchant, middle class. • Increased emphasis on education & cheaper availability of printed books. • Magnetic compassmakes China a great sea power!
Song Decline • The Song approach to a more centralized imperial government led to its eventual split and fall: Financial and Military • During the first half of the Song Dynasty, the Khitan of Manchuria demanded and received large tribute payments of silk and silver. • The Song Dynasty in time with the incursion from the north would move its empire to Hangzhou and survived only in southern China. • The Southern Song would remain until 1279 when the Mongol forces ended the dynasty and incorporated southern China into their empire.
Shang 1600-1100 BCE Zhou 1100-256 Qin 221-206 Han 202 BCE - 220 CE Three Kingdoms 220-65 Shu, Wei, and Wu Northern and Southern Dynasties 265-598 Sui 581-618 Tang 618-907 Song 960-1279 Yuan 1279-1368 Ming 1368-1644 Manchu (Qing) 1644-1912 Chinese Dynasties
Feudal Japan Early Japanese Society
Early Japanese Society • The first signs of civilization and stable living patterns appeared in the Mesolithic Era. • Japan is a series of thousands of islands and it is believed trade and contact with areas as far as Okinawa was common. • During the Han and Wei Dynsasties, Chinese travelers to what is now Kyushu which is south of main island Honshu,met descendents of the Taibo or Wu. • Yamato polity was the main ruling power in Japan from the middle of the 3rd century until 710.
Yamato Period • The Yamato Period is divided into two periods: The Kofun Period (mid 3rd c-mid 6th c) defined by a tumulus-building culture and the Asuka Period (mid 6th c-710) defined as a time in which the capital was in Asuka, near present-day Nara. • During the 5th and 6th Centuries, there was much contact between the Baekje Kingdom of Korea and the Yamato State. • This contact brought Buddhism to Japan and military support to the Baekje.
Yamato Period: 300-710 • Began promoting the adoption of Chinese culture: • Confucianism. • Language (kanji characters). • Buddhist sects. • Chinese art & architecture. • Government structure. “Great Kings” era
Zen Buddhism • A Japanese variation of the Mahayana form of Buddhism, which came from India through China and Korea. • It reinforced the Bushido values of mental and self-discipline.
Yamato Period • Tang Dynasty Chinese influences during the Nara period were centralized imperial government, aesthetics, and religion instead of military advances during the Kofun-Asuka Eras. • The Kofun Period (mound people) saw the establishment of strong military states centered around powerful clans in the Yamato area. • The Yamato Court is the origin of the Japanese imperial lineage.
Yamato Period • The Asuka period is when the proto-Japanese society clearly developed into a centralized state, codification of laws, and Buddhist. • One of the most well known of the Asuka period was Prince Shotoku who devoted his efforts to spread Buddhism and Chinese culture in Japan.
Prince Shotoku: 573-621 • Adopted Chinese culture and Confucianism. • Buddhist sects allowed to develop. • Created a new government structure: • 17 Article Constitution in 604.
Empire of the Sun • In a letter brought to the emperor of China by an emissary from Japan stated that the “Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises” sends a letter to the “Emperor where the Sun sets.” Impact? • Taika Reform Edicts of 645 intensified Japanese adoption of Chinese cultural practices, government, and administration. • This also paved the way for the dominance of Confucian philosophy in Japan that would last until the 19th Century.
Nara Period • The Nara Period (8th c) marked the emergence of a strong Japanese state. The capital was moved to Heijo-kyo, near present-day Nara. • It was modeled after the Chinese capital of the day, Chang’an. (Xi’an) • In 784 to limit the powers of the Buddhist clergy, the capital was moved again to Heian-kyo, present-day Kyoto. • It was during this time a Japanese version of creation began. These myths centered around the Emperor Jimmu, a direct descendent of the Shinto deity Amaterasu or the Sun Goddess.
Imperial Line • The myths also claim Jimmu started a line of emperors that remains unbroken to this day. However, there is dispute over the origin of Jimmu. • For most of Japan’s history, actual political power has not been in the hands of the emperor,but in the hands of court nobility, the shoguns, the military, and more recently, the prime minister.
Heian Period: 794-1156 • Characteristics: • Growth of large landed estates. • Arts & literature of China flourished. • Elaborate court life [highly refined] • ETIQUETTE. • Final period of classical Japanese history • Great novel • The Tale of Genjiby Lady Murasaki Shikibu[1000 pgs.+] • Moving away from Chinese models in religion, the arts, and government.
Heian Period:Cultural Borrowing • Chinese writing. • Chinese artistic styles. • Buddhism [in the form of ZEN]. • BUT, not the Chinese civil service system!
Lady Murasaki Shikibu She contributed much to the Japanese script known as kana, while men wrote with Chinese characters, kanji.
Feudal Japan The reigning families of the Shogun
Feudal Japan • The “feudal” period of Japanese history is characterized by powerful, regional aristocratic families (daimyo) and the military rule of warlords (shogun). • The three most important clans were the Minamoto clan, the Taira clan, and the Fujiwara clan.
Kamakura Period 1185-1333 • The Kamakura Period marks the governance of the Kamakura Shogunate and the transition to the Japanese “medieval” era, a roughly 700-year period in which the Emperor,the court, and the traditional central government were left intact. • Civil, military, and judicial matters were controlled by the bushii (samarai) class, the most powerful of which was the shogun. • The first appointed Shogun by the emperor was Minamoto no Yoritomo.
Minamoto Yoritomo Founded the Kamakura Shogunate: 1185-1333
Kamakura Period • After Yoritomo’s death, another warrior clan,the Hojo came to rule as regents for the shoguns. • Mongol invasions of Japan between 1272 and 1281 (Kamikaze) or divine wind • Although the invasion attempt was unsuccessful, it lead to the fall of the Kamakura with the extinction of the shogunate. • The Kamakura Period is known as Japan’s “Middle Ages” which includes the Muromachi Period and lasted until the Meijii Restoration.
Mongol“Invasions”of Japan 4,400 ships and 140,000 men, but kamikaze winds stopped them.
The emperor reigned, but did not always rule! Feudal Society
Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service.Japan: Shogun Land - Shoen Loyalty Land - Shoen Daimyo Daimyo Loyalty Samurai Samurai Samurai Food Protection Peasant Peasant Peasant Peasant