Female Reproductive System Lecture 9
Reproduction is accomplished when the egg cell (female gamete) is fertilized by the sperm cell (male gamete)
The female reproductive system is composed of internal and external organs of reproduction.
Internal Organs • OVARIES - paired - function is to produce hormones for ovulation and pregnancy. These are estrogen and progesterone. - store egg cells (oocytes) - mature the stored eggs until ovulation.
FALLOPIAN TUBES - the connection between the ovary and the uterus. - also called OVIDUCTS. - have FIMBRAE to coax the ovulated egg into the tube. - once inside the tube, the egg travels toward the uterus. When sperm is available, fertilization usually occurs in the oviduct.
UTERUS - a muscular, pear-shaped, hollow organ. - located between the bladder and the rectum. - function is to nourish and protect the growing fetus until birth.
VAGINA - is a muscular tube that extends from the cervix (neck of the uterus) to the exterior of the body. - functions: sexual intercourse, receptor of semen, discharge of menses, and passage for delivery of fetus.
Colpoptosis is a prolapse or dropping of the vagina. This is usually treated by suturing the vagina to the abdominal wall in a procedure known as a colporrhaphy.
Many women who have had a vaginal childbirth suffer from herniation of the bladder. This condition is known as a colp/o/cyst/o/cele vagina bladder herniation
The vagina is lined by mucus. This mucus is a lubricant. • The combining form for mucus is MUC/O • The suffix ending –OUS is an adjective that means pertaining to mucus. • The suffix ending –OID is an adjective that means resembling.
Female External Organs • The external organs are collectively known as GENITALIA. This is for both sexes.
LABIA MAJORA (the larger outer lips of the vagina) • LABIA MINORA ( smaller inner lips of the vagina) • CLITORIS (contains many nerve endings. Similar to the penis in males) • BARTHOLIN’S GLANDS (for lubrication)
The CERVIX is a term denoting the neck of the uterus and the extension of it into the top portion of the vagina. • The combining form cervic/o refers to this part.
The word GRAVIDA is used to describe a woman that is pregnant. • There is also a suffix, -gravida. • Gravida may be followed by a number to denote the number of pregnancies. • A gravida 4 woman is in her 4th pregnancy.
The term PARA refers to a woman who has given birth to an infant, regardless of whether or not the baby was alive at birth. • It is also followed by numbers to indicated the number of deliveries. • A para 2 woman gave birth twice.
Hysterotomy • What is it? - incision of the uterus 2. When would you use it? - performing a cesarian section 3. What instrument would you use? - hysterotome
Pathologies • CANDIASIS - vaginal fungal infection caused by Candida albicans. This is characterized by a curdy or cheesy discharge with extreme itching (puriritis)
CHLAMYDIA - infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacterial infection. This is among the most common STD. In women it presents with a mucopurulent cervicitis. In men, it presents with a whitish discharge from the penis.
ENDOMETRIOSIS - endometrial tissue (found normally in the wall of the uterus) is found in various abnormal sites throughout the pelvis or abdominal wall.
FIBROIDS - benign uterine tumors • GONORRHEA - STD of inflammation of the mucous membranes. • LEUKORRHEA - white or yellow mucus discharge from the cervical canal or vagina.
OLIGOMENORRHEA - scanty menses • PYOSALPINX - pus in the fallopian tubes • RETROVERSION - a turning of the uterus