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Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System. CHAPTER 17. Female Reproductive System Overview. Purpose of female reproductive system Reproduction Secretes hormones that support secondary sex characteristic changes Secretes hormones that sustain pregnancy should fertilization occur. External Genitalia.

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Female Reproductive System

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  1. Female Reproductive System CHAPTER 17

  2. Female Reproductive System Overview • Purpose of female reproductive system • Reproduction • Secretes hormones that support secondary sex characteristic changes • Secretes hormones that sustain pregnancy should fertilization occur

  3. External Genitalia • Mons pubis • Fatty tissue that covers and cushions symphysis pubis • Labia majora • Two folds of skin containing fatty tissue and covered with hair • Located on either side of the vaginal opening, extending from the mons pubis to the perineum

  4. External Genitalia • Labia minora • Two thin folds of tissue located within the folds of the labia majora • Extends from the clitoris downward toward the perineum • Bartholin’s glands • Located on either side of the vaginal orifice • Secrete a mucous substance that lubricates the vagina

  5. External Genitalia • Clitoris • Short, elongated organ composed of erectile tissue • Located just behind the upper junction of the labia minora • Homologous to the penis • Urinary orifice • Not true part of female reproductive system, but part of the vulva

  6. External Genitalia • Vaginal orifice • Located in lower portion of the vestibule, below the urinary meatus • Also known as the vaginal introitus • Perineum • Area between vaginal orifice and anus • Consists of muscular and fibrous tissue and serves as support for pelvic structures

  7. Internal Genitalia • Vagina • Muscular tube that connects the uterus with the vulva • Rests between bladder (anteriorly) and rectum (posteriorly) • Stretchable folds of inner lining known as rugae • Capable of expanding during childbirth to permit passage of baby’s head without tearing lining

  8. Internal Genitalia • Uterus • Pear-shaped, hollow, muscular organ that houses the fertilized implanted ovum as it develops throughout pregnancy • Source of monthly menstrual flow if pregnancy does not occur

  9. Internal Genitalia • Uterus • Three identifiable portions • Fundus • Small dome-shaped upper portion • Body • Central portion • Cervix • Narrower, necklike portion at lower end

  10. Internal Genitalia • Wall of uterus contains three layers • Perimetrium • Outermost serous membrane layer • Myometrium • Middle, muscular layer • Endometrium • Innermost layer, highly vascular

  11. Internal Genitalia • Fallopian tubes • Also known as uterine tubes or oviducts • Serve as passageway for the ova as they exit the ovary enroute to the uterus • Free end of each tube ends in fingerlike projections called fimbriae • Fimbriated ends draw ovum into tube through wavelike motions when ovum is released from ovary

  12. Internal Genitalia • Ovaries • Female sex cells = female gonads • Almond-shaped pair of ovaries, held in place by ligaments • Responsible for: • Producing mature ova and releasing them at monthly intervals • Producing hormones necessary for normal growth and development of female • Producing hormones necessary for maintaining pregnancy should it occur

  13. Mammary Glands (Breasts) • Mammary glands • Known as the breasts • Responsible for production of milk (lactation) • Consist of glandular tissue with supporting adipose tissue and fibrous connective tissue, covered with skin

  14. MammaryGlands (Breasts) • Structures of the breasts • Nipple • Located at center of each breast • Consists of sensitive erectile tissue • Areola • Darker pigmented area surrounding the nipple • Montgomery’s tubercles • Small sebaceous glands present in areola

  15. Mammary Glands (Breasts) • Tissues of the breasts • Adipose • Connective • Glandular • Lactiferous ducts • Narrow tubular structures of the breast that transport milk to the nipple for breastfeeding

  16. Female Pelvis • Landmarks of the pelvis • True pelvis boundaries • Sacrum, coccyx, pubic bone, ischial spines • Serve as reference points for measuring across pelvic outlet from varying angles • Measurement determines size of pelvic

  17. Puberty and the Menstrual Cycle • Puberty • Period of life at which the ability to reproduce begins • Female reproductive organs are fully developed • Secondary sex characteristic changes occur

  18. Puberty and the Menstrual Cycle • Menstrual cycle • Menstrual Phase • Days 1 – 5 • Menstrual flow occurs on day one and last for 3 to 5 days • Postmenstrual Phase • Days 6 – 12 • Interval between menses and ovulation

  19. Puberty and the Menstrual Cycle • Menstrual cycle • Ovulatory Phase • Days 13 – 14 • Graafian follicle ruptures, releasing mature ovum into pelvic cavity = ovulation • Premenstrual Phase • Days 15 – 28 • Phase between ovulatory phase and onset of menstrual flow

  20. Common Signs and Symptoms • Amenorrhea • Absence of menstrual flow • Dysmenorrhea • Painful menstrual flow • Menorrhagia • Abnormally long or very heavy menstrual periods

  21. Common Signs and Symptoms • Metrorrhagia • Uterine bleeding at times other than the menstrual period • Oligomenorrhea • Abnormally light or infrequent menstruation

  22. Forms of Contraception • Abstinence • Abstaining from having vaginal intercourse • Advantage: • 100 percent effective

  23. Forms of Contraception • Oral contraceptives • Birth control pills • Contain synthetic forms of the hormones, estrogen and progesterone • Advantages • Disadvantage

  24. Forms of Contraception • Depro-Provera injection • Form of contraception administered intramuscularly, approximately once every 12 weeks • Advantages • Disadvantages

  25. Forms of Contraception • Intrauterine device • Small plastic T-shaped device inserted into the uterus to prevent implantation of an ovum into the uterus • Advantages • Disadvantages

  26. Forms of Contraception • Birth control patch • Thin, flexible square skin patch that continuously delivers hormones into the bloodstream for a full seven days to prevent pregnancy • Advantages • Disadvantages

  27. Forms of Contraception • Barrier methods • Methods of birth control that place physical barriers between the cervix and the sperm • Sperm cannot pass the cervix and enter the uterus, and thus the fallopian tubes • Examples: • Spermicidal jellies and creams • Condoms • Diaphragms

  28. Forms of Contraception • Permanent methods of birth control • Tubal ligation • Surgically cutting and tying the fallopian tubes to prevent passage of ova or sperm through the tubes • Prevents pregnancy • Known as female sterilization

  29. Forms of Contraception Tubal Ligation

  30. Forms of Contraception • Permanent methods of birth control • Micro-insert system • Alternate to tubal ligation • Provides bilateral occlusion of fallopian tubes by inserting a soft, flexible micro-insert into each fallopian tube • Requires no incisions and can be performed without general anesthesia

  31. Forms of Contraception • Permanent methods of birth control • Vasectomy • Male sterilization • Surgically cutting and tying the vas deferens to prevent passage of sperm • Prevents pregnancy

  32. Permanent Methods of Birth Control Vasectomy

  33. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Female Reproductive System

  34. Carcinoma of the Breast • Pronounced • (car-sin-OH-mah of the breast) • Defined • Malignant tumor of the breast tissue • Most common type (ductal carcinoma) originates in the mammary ducts • Has ability to invade surrounding tissue if not detected early enough

  35. Cervical Carcinoma • Pronounced • (SER-vih-kal car-sin-OH-mah) • Defined • Malignant tumor of the cervix • Symptoms include bleeding between menstrual periods, after sexual intercourse, after menopause, and an abnormal Pap smear

  36. Cervicitis • Pronounced • (ser-vih-SIGH-tis) • Defined • Acute or chronic inflammation of the uterine cervix

  37. Cystocele • Pronounced • (SIS-toh-seel) • Defined • Herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina

  38. Endometrial Carcinoma • Pronounced • (en-doh-MEE-tree-al car-sin-OH-mah) • Defined • Malignant tumor of the inner lining of the uterus • Also known as adenocarcinoma of the uterus

  39. Endometriosis • Pronounced • (en-doh-mee-tree-OH-sis) • Defined • Presence and growth of endometrial tissue in areas outside the endometrium • Lining of the uterus

  40. Fibrocystic Breast Disease • Pronounced • (figh-broh-SIS-tik breast dih-ZEEZ) • Defined • Presence of single or multiple fluid-filled cysts that are palpable in the breasts • Cysts are benign and fluctuate in size with the menstrual period

  41. Fibroid Tumor • Pronounced • (FIGH-broyd tumor) • Defined • A benign, fribous tumor of the uterus

  42. Leiomyoma • Pronounced • (ligh-oh-my-OH-mah) • Defined • Benign, smooth muscle tumor of the uterus

  43. Ovarian Carcinoma • Pronounced • (oh-VAY-ree-an car-sin-OH-mah) • Defined • Malignant tumor of the ovaries, most commonly occurring in women in their 50s • Rarely detected in early stage

  44. Ovarian Cysts • Pronounced • (oh-VAY-ree-an SISTS) • Defined • Benign, globular sacs (cysts) that form on or near the ovaries • May be fluid filled or may contain semisolid materials

  45. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) • Pronounced • (PELL-vik in-FLAM-mah-toh-ree dih-ZEEZ) • Defined • Infection of the fallopian tubes • Salpingitis

  46. Stress Incontinence, Urinary • Pronounced • STRESS in-CON-tin-ens YOO-rih-nair-ee) • Defined • Inability to hold urine when the bladder is stressed by sneezing, coughing, laughing, or lifting

  47. Vaginitis • Pronounced • (vaj-in-EYE-tis) • Defined • Inflammation of the vagina and the vulva


  49. Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures • Aspiration biopsy • Invasive procedure in which a needle is inserted into an area of the body, such as the breast • Withdraws tissue or fluid sample for microscopic examination and diagnosis

  50. Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures • Breast self-examination • Procedure in which the woman examines her breasts and surrounding tissue for evidence of any changes that could indicate the possibility of malignancy

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