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Female Reproductive System. CHAPTER 17. Female Reproductive System Overview. Purpose of female reproductive system Reproduction Secretes hormones that support secondary sex characteristic changes Secretes hormones that sustain pregnancy should fertilization occur. External Genitalia.

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Female Reproductive System

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female reproductive system overview
Female Reproductive System Overview
  • Purpose of female reproductive system
    • Reproduction
    • Secretes hormones that support secondary sex characteristic changes
    • Secretes hormones that sustain pregnancy should fertilization occur
external genitalia
External Genitalia
  • Mons pubis
    • Fatty tissue that covers and cushions symphysis pubis
  • Labia majora
    • Two folds of skin containing fatty tissue and covered with hair
      • Located on either side of the vaginal opening, extending from the mons pubis to the perineum
external genitalia4
External Genitalia
  • Labia minora
    • Two thin folds of tissue located within the folds of the labia majora
      • Extends from the clitoris downward toward the perineum
  • Bartholin’s glands
    • Located on either side of the vaginal orifice
      • Secrete a mucous substance that lubricates the vagina
external genitalia5
External Genitalia
  • Clitoris
    • Short, elongated organ composed of erectile tissue
    • Located just behind the upper junction of the labia minora
    • Homologous to the penis
  • Urinary orifice
    • Not true part of female reproductive system, but part of the vulva
external genitalia6
External Genitalia
  • Vaginal orifice
    • Located in lower portion of the vestibule, below the urinary meatus
    • Also known as the vaginal introitus
  • Perineum
    • Area between vaginal orifice and anus
    • Consists of muscular and fibrous tissue and serves as support for pelvic structures
internal genitalia
Internal Genitalia
  • Vagina
    • Muscular tube that connects the uterus with the vulva
      • Rests between bladder (anteriorly) and rectum (posteriorly)
    • Stretchable folds of inner lining known as rugae
      • Capable of expanding during childbirth to permit passage of baby’s head without tearing lining
internal genitalia8
Internal Genitalia
  • Uterus
    • Pear-shaped, hollow, muscular organ that houses the fertilized implanted ovum as it develops throughout pregnancy
      • Source of monthly menstrual flow if pregnancy does not occur
internal genitalia9
Internal Genitalia
  • Uterus
    • Three identifiable portions
      • Fundus
        • Small dome-shaped upper portion
      • Body
        • Central portion
      • Cervix
        • Narrower, necklike portion at lower end
internal genitalia10
Internal Genitalia
  • Wall of uterus contains three layers
    • Perimetrium
      • Outermost serous membrane layer
    • Myometrium
      • Middle, muscular layer
    • Endometrium
      • Innermost layer, highly vascular
internal genitalia11
Internal Genitalia
  • Fallopian tubes
    • Also known as uterine tubes or oviducts
    • Serve as passageway for the ova as they exit the ovary enroute to the uterus
    • Free end of each tube ends in fingerlike projections called fimbriae
      • Fimbriated ends draw ovum into tube through wavelike motions when ovum is released from ovary
internal genitalia12
Internal Genitalia
  • Ovaries
    • Female sex cells = female gonads
    • Almond-shaped pair of ovaries, held in place by ligaments
    • Responsible for:
      • Producing mature ova and releasing them at monthly intervals
      • Producing hormones necessary for normal growth and development of female
      • Producing hormones necessary for maintaining pregnancy should it occur
mammary glands breasts
Mammary Glands (Breasts)
  • Mammary glands
    • Known as the breasts
    • Responsible for production of milk (lactation)
    • Consist of glandular tissue with supporting adipose tissue and fibrous connective tissue, covered with skin
mammary glands breasts14
MammaryGlands (Breasts)
  • Structures of the breasts
    • Nipple
      • Located at center of each breast
      • Consists of sensitive erectile tissue
    • Areola
      • Darker pigmented area surrounding the nipple
      • Montgomery’s tubercles
        • Small sebaceous glands present in areola
mammary glands breasts15
Mammary Glands (Breasts)
  • Tissues of the breasts
    • Adipose
    • Connective
    • Glandular
  • Lactiferous ducts
    • Narrow tubular structures of the breast that transport milk to the nipple for breastfeeding
female pelvis
Female Pelvis
  • Landmarks of the pelvis
    • True pelvis boundaries
    • Sacrum, coccyx, pubic bone, ischial spines
    • Serve as reference points for measuring across pelvic outlet from varying angles
    • Measurement determines size of pelvic
puberty and the menstrual cycle
Puberty and the Menstrual Cycle
  • Puberty
    • Period of life at which the ability to reproduce begins
    • Female reproductive organs are fully developed
    • Secondary sex characteristic changes occur
puberty and the menstrual cycle18
Puberty and the Menstrual Cycle
  • Menstrual cycle
    • Menstrual Phase
      • Days 1 – 5
      • Menstrual flow occurs on day one and last for 3 to 5 days
    • Postmenstrual Phase
      • Days 6 – 12
      • Interval between menses and ovulation
puberty and the menstrual cycle19
Puberty and the Menstrual Cycle
  • Menstrual cycle
    • Ovulatory Phase
      • Days 13 – 14
      • Graafian follicle ruptures, releasing mature ovum into pelvic cavity = ovulation
    • Premenstrual Phase
      • Days 15 – 28
      • Phase between ovulatory phase and onset of menstrual flow
common signs and symptoms
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Amenorrhea
    • Absence of menstrual flow
  • Dysmenorrhea
    • Painful menstrual flow
  • Menorrhagia
    • Abnormally long or very heavy menstrual periods
common signs and symptoms21
Common Signs and Symptoms
  • Metrorrhagia
    • Uterine bleeding at times other than the menstrual period
  • Oligomenorrhea
    • Abnormally light or infrequent menstruation
forms of contraception
Forms of Contraception
  • Abstinence
    • Abstaining from having vaginal intercourse
    • Advantage:
      • 100 percent effective
forms of contraception23
Forms of Contraception
  • Oral contraceptives
    • Birth control pills
    • Contain synthetic forms of the hormones, estrogen and progesterone
      • Advantages
      • Disadvantage
forms of contraception24
Forms of Contraception
  • Depro-Provera injection
    • Form of contraception administered intramuscularly, approximately once every 12 weeks
      • Advantages
      • Disadvantages
forms of contraception25
Forms of Contraception
  • Intrauterine device
    • Small plastic T-shaped device inserted into the uterus to prevent implantation of an ovum into the uterus
      • Advantages
      • Disadvantages
forms of contraception26
Forms of Contraception
  • Birth control patch
    • Thin, flexible square skin patch that continuously delivers hormones into the bloodstream for a full seven days to prevent pregnancy
      • Advantages
      • Disadvantages
forms of contraception27
Forms of Contraception
  • Barrier methods
    • Methods of birth control that place physical barriers between the cervix and the sperm
    • Sperm cannot pass the cervix and enter the uterus, and thus the fallopian tubes
    • Examples:
      • Spermicidal jellies and creams
      • Condoms
      • Diaphragms
forms of contraception28
Forms of Contraception
  • Permanent methods of birth control
    • Tubal ligation
    • Surgically cutting and tying the fallopian tubes to prevent passage of ova or sperm through the tubes
      • Prevents pregnancy
      • Known as female sterilization
forms of contraception30
Forms of Contraception
  • Permanent methods of birth control
  • Micro-insert system
      • Alternate to tubal ligation
      • Provides bilateral occlusion of fallopian tubes by inserting a soft, flexible micro-insert into each fallopian tube
      • Requires no incisions and can be performed without general anesthesia
forms of contraception31
Forms of Contraception
  • Permanent methods of birth control
    • Vasectomy
    • Male sterilization
    • Surgically cutting and tying the vas deferens to prevent passage of sperm
      • Prevents pregnancy
pathological conditions



Reproductive System

carcinoma of the breast
Carcinoma of the Breast
  • Pronounced
    • (car-sin-OH-mah of the breast)
  • Defined
    • Malignant tumor of the breast tissue
    • Most common type (ductal carcinoma) originates in the mammary ducts
      • Has ability to invade surrounding tissue if not detected early enough
cervical carcinoma
Cervical Carcinoma
  • Pronounced
    • (SER-vih-kal car-sin-OH-mah)
  • Defined
    • Malignant tumor of the cervix
      • Symptoms include bleeding between menstrual periods, after sexual intercourse, after menopause, and an abnormal Pap smear
  • Pronounced
    • (ser-vih-SIGH-tis)
  • Defined
    • Acute or chronic inflammation of the uterine cervix
  • Pronounced
    • (SIS-toh-seel)
  • Defined
    • Herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina
endometrial carcinoma
Endometrial Carcinoma
  • Pronounced
    • (en-doh-MEE-tree-al car-sin-OH-mah)
  • Defined
    • Malignant tumor of the inner lining of the uterus
    • Also known as adenocarcinoma of the uterus
  • Pronounced
    • (en-doh-mee-tree-OH-sis)
  • Defined
    • Presence and growth of endometrial tissue in areas outside the endometrium
      • Lining of the uterus
fibrocystic breast disease
Fibrocystic Breast Disease
  • Pronounced
    • (figh-broh-SIS-tik breast dih-ZEEZ)
  • Defined
    • Presence of single or multiple fluid-filled cysts that are palpable in the breasts
      • Cysts are benign and fluctuate in size with the menstrual period
fibroid tumor
Fibroid Tumor
  • Pronounced
    • (FIGH-broyd tumor)
  • Defined
    • A benign, fribous tumor of the uterus
  • Pronounced
    • (ligh-oh-my-OH-mah)
  • Defined
    • Benign, smooth muscle tumor of the uterus
ovarian carcinoma
Ovarian Carcinoma
  • Pronounced
    • (oh-VAY-ree-an car-sin-OH-mah)
  • Defined
    • Malignant tumor of the ovaries, most commonly occurring in women in their 50s
      • Rarely detected in early stage
ovarian cysts
Ovarian Cysts
  • Pronounced
    • (oh-VAY-ree-an SISTS)
  • Defined
    • Benign, globular sacs (cysts) that form on or near the ovaries
      • May be fluid filled or may contain semisolid materials
pelvic inflammatory disease pid
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
  • Pronounced
    • (PELL-vik in-FLAM-mah-toh-ree dih-ZEEZ)
  • Defined
    • Infection of the fallopian tubes
    • Salpingitis
stress incontinence urinary
Stress Incontinence, Urinary
  • Pronounced
    • STRESS in-CON-tin-ens YOO-rih-nair-ee)
  • Defined
    • Inability to hold urine when the bladder is stressed by sneezing, coughing, laughing, or lifting
  • Pronounced
    • (vaj-in-EYE-tis)
  • Defined
    • Inflammation of the vagina and the vulva
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures49
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Aspiration biopsy
    • Invasive procedure in which a needle is inserted into an area of the body, such as the breast
    • Withdraws tissue or fluid sample for microscopic examination and diagnosis
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures50
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Breast self-examination
    • Procedure in which the woman examines her breasts and surrounding tissue for evidence of any changes that could indicate the possibility of malignancy
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures51
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Colposcopy
    • Visual examination of the vagina and cervix with a colposcope
      • Lighted binocular microscope used for direct examination of the surfaces of the vagina and cervix
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures52
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Cone biopsy
    • Surgical removal of a cone-shaped segment of the cervix for diagnosis or treatment
      • Also known as conization
  • Cryosurgery
    • Destruction of tissue by rapid freezing with substances such as liquid nitrogen
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures53
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Culdocentesis
    • Surgical puncture through the posterior wall of the vagina into the cul-de-sac to withdraw intraperitoneal fluid for examination
      • Checking for evidence of inflammation, purulent drainage, bleeding, ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, or ovarian malignancy
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures54
Diagnostic Techniques,Treatments, and Procedures
  • Dilation and Curettage
    • Dilatation or widening of the cervical canal with a dilator, followed by scraping of the uterine lining with a curet
    • Also termed D & C
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures55
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Endometrial biopsy
    • Invasive test for obtaining a sample of endometrial tissue with a small curet, for examination
  • Hysterosalpingography
    • X-ray of the uterus and the fallopian tubes, by injecting a contrast material into these structures
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures56
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Laparosopy
    • Process of viewing the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures57
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP)
    • Procedure used to remove abnormal cells from the surface of the cervix using a thin wire loop that acts like a scalpel
      • Painless electrical current passes through the loop as it cuts away a thin layer of surface cells from the cervix
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures58
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Mammography
    • Process of examining with x-ray the soft tissue of the breast to detect various benign and/or malignant growths before they can be felt
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures59
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Papanicolaou smear
    • Microscopic examination of cells scraped from within the cervix, from around the cervix, and from the posterior part of the vagina to test for cervical cancer
    • Pap Smear
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures60
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Liquid-based pap (LBP)
    • Process of collecting a tissue sample from the endocervix and the exocervix with a sampling device that is placed directly into a liquid fixative instead of being spread onto a glass slide
      • Process provides immediate fixation and improves specimen adequacy
diagnostic techniques treatments and procedures61
Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures
  • Pelvic ultrasound
    • Noninvasive procedure that used high-frequency sound waves to examine the abdomen and pelvis
  • Pelvimetry
    • Process of measuring the female pelvis, manually or by x-ray, to determine its adequacy for childbearing