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Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System

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Female Reproductive System

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  1. Female Reproductive System CHAPTER 17

  2. Female Reproductive System Overview • Purpose of female reproductive system • Reproduction • Secretes hormones that support secondary sex characteristic changes • Secretes hormones that sustain pregnancy should fertilization occur

  3. External Genitalia • Mons pubis • Fatty tissue that covers and cushions symphysis pubis • Labia majora • Two folds of skin containing fatty tissue and covered with hair • Located on either side of the vaginal opening, extending from the mons pubis to the perineum

  4. External Genitalia • Labia minora • Two thin folds of tissue located within the folds of the labia majora • Extends from the clitoris downward toward the perineum • Bartholin’s glands • Located on either side of the vaginal orifice • Secrete a mucous substance that lubricates the vagina

  5. External Genitalia • Clitoris • Short, elongated organ composed of erectile tissue • Located just behind the upper junction of the labia minora • Homologous to the penis • Urinary orifice • Not true part of female reproductive system, but part of the vulva

  6. External Genitalia • Vaginal orifice • Located in lower portion of the vestibule, below the urinary meatus • Also known as the vaginal introitus • Perineum • Area between vaginal orifice and anus • Consists of muscular and fibrous tissue and serves as support for pelvic structures

  7. Internal Genitalia • Vagina • Muscular tube that connects the uterus with the vulva • Rests between bladder (anteriorly) and rectum (posteriorly) • Stretchable folds of inner lining known as rugae • Capable of expanding during childbirth to permit passage of baby’s head without tearing lining

  8. Internal Genitalia • Uterus • Pear-shaped, hollow, muscular organ that houses the fertilized implanted ovum as it develops throughout pregnancy • Source of monthly menstrual flow if pregnancy does not occur

  9. Internal Genitalia • Uterus • Three identifiable portions • Fundus • Small dome-shaped upper portion • Body • Central portion • Cervix • Narrower, necklike portion at lower end

  10. Internal Genitalia • Wall of uterus contains three layers • Perimetrium • Outermost serous membrane layer • Myometrium • Middle, muscular layer • Endometrium • Innermost layer, highly vascular

  11. Internal Genitalia • Fallopian tubes • Also known as uterine tubes or oviducts • Serve as passageway for the ova as they exit the ovary enroute to the uterus • Free end of each tube ends in fingerlike projections called fimbriae • Fimbriated ends draw ovum into tube through wavelike motions when ovum is released from ovary

  12. Internal Genitalia • Ovaries • Female sex cells = female gonads • Almond-shaped pair of ovaries, held in place by ligaments • Responsible for: • Producing mature ova and releasing them at monthly intervals • Producing hormones necessary for normal growth and development of female • Producing hormones necessary for maintaining pregnancy should it occur

  13. Mammary Glands (Breasts) • Mammary glands • Known as the breasts • Responsible for production of milk (lactation) • Consist of glandular tissue with supporting adipose tissue and fibrous connective tissue, covered with skin

  14. MammaryGlands (Breasts) • Structures of the breasts • Nipple • Located at center of each breast • Consists of sensitive erectile tissue • Areola • Darker pigmented area surrounding the nipple • Montgomery’s tubercles • Small sebaceous glands present in areola

  15. Mammary Glands (Breasts) • Tissues of the breasts • Adipose • Connective • Glandular • Lactiferous ducts • Narrow tubular structures of the breast that transport milk to the nipple for breastfeeding

  16. Female Pelvis • Landmarks of the pelvis • True pelvis boundaries • Sacrum, coccyx, pubic bone, ischial spines • Serve as reference points for measuring across pelvic outlet from varying angles • Measurement determines size of pelvic

  17. Puberty and the Menstrual Cycle • Puberty • Period of life at which the ability to reproduce begins • Female reproductive organs are fully developed • Secondary sex characteristic changes occur

  18. Puberty and the Menstrual Cycle • Menstrual cycle • Menstrual Phase • Days 1 – 5 • Menstrual flow occurs on day one and last for 3 to 5 days • Postmenstrual Phase • Days 6 – 12 • Interval between menses and ovulation

  19. Puberty and the Menstrual Cycle • Menstrual cycle • Ovulatory Phase • Days 13 – 14 • Graafian follicle ruptures, releasing mature ovum into pelvic cavity = ovulation • Premenstrual Phase • Days 15 – 28 • Phase between ovulatory phase and onset of menstrual flow

  20. Common Signs and Symptoms • Amenorrhea • Absence of menstrual flow • Dysmenorrhea • Painful menstrual flow • Menorrhagia • Abnormally long or very heavy menstrual periods

  21. Common Signs and Symptoms • Metrorrhagia • Uterine bleeding at times other than the menstrual period • Oligomenorrhea • Abnormally light or infrequent menstruation

  22. Forms of Contraception • Abstinence • Abstaining from having vaginal intercourse • Advantage: • 100 percent effective

  23. Forms of Contraception • Oral contraceptives • Birth control pills • Contain synthetic forms of the hormones, estrogen and progesterone • Advantages • Disadvantage

  24. Forms of Contraception • Depro-Provera injection • Form of contraception administered intramuscularly, approximately once every 12 weeks • Advantages • Disadvantages

  25. Forms of Contraception • Intrauterine device • Small plastic T-shaped device inserted into the uterus to prevent implantation of an ovum into the uterus • Advantages • Disadvantages

  26. Forms of Contraception • Birth control patch • Thin, flexible square skin patch that continuously delivers hormones into the bloodstream for a full seven days to prevent pregnancy • Advantages • Disadvantages

  27. Forms of Contraception • Barrier methods • Methods of birth control that place physical barriers between the cervix and the sperm • Sperm cannot pass the cervix and enter the uterus, and thus the fallopian tubes • Examples: • Spermicidal jellies and creams • Condoms • Diaphragms

  28. Forms of Contraception • Permanent methods of birth control • Tubal ligation • Surgically cutting and tying the fallopian tubes to prevent passage of ova or sperm through the tubes • Prevents pregnancy • Known as female sterilization

  29. Forms of Contraception Tubal Ligation

  30. Forms of Contraception • Permanent methods of birth control • Micro-insert system • Alternate to tubal ligation • Provides bilateral occlusion of fallopian tubes by inserting a soft, flexible micro-insert into each fallopian tube • Requires no incisions and can be performed without general anesthesia

  31. Forms of Contraception • Permanent methods of birth control • Vasectomy • Male sterilization • Surgically cutting and tying the vas deferens to prevent passage of sperm • Prevents pregnancy

  32. Permanent Methods of Birth Control Vasectomy

  33. PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Female Reproductive System

  34. Carcinoma of the Breast • Pronounced • (car-sin-OH-mah of the breast) • Defined • Malignant tumor of the breast tissue • Most common type (ductal carcinoma) originates in the mammary ducts • Has ability to invade surrounding tissue if not detected early enough

  35. Cervical Carcinoma • Pronounced • (SER-vih-kal car-sin-OH-mah) • Defined • Malignant tumor of the cervix • Symptoms include bleeding between menstrual periods, after sexual intercourse, after menopause, and an abnormal Pap smear

  36. Cervicitis • Pronounced • (ser-vih-SIGH-tis) • Defined • Acute or chronic inflammation of the uterine cervix

  37. Cystocele • Pronounced • (SIS-toh-seel) • Defined • Herniation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina

  38. Endometrial Carcinoma • Pronounced • (en-doh-MEE-tree-al car-sin-OH-mah) • Defined • Malignant tumor of the inner lining of the uterus • Also known as adenocarcinoma of the uterus

  39. Endometriosis • Pronounced • (en-doh-mee-tree-OH-sis) • Defined • Presence and growth of endometrial tissue in areas outside the endometrium • Lining of the uterus

  40. Fibrocystic Breast Disease • Pronounced • (figh-broh-SIS-tik breast dih-ZEEZ) • Defined • Presence of single or multiple fluid-filled cysts that are palpable in the breasts • Cysts are benign and fluctuate in size with the menstrual period

  41. Fibroid Tumor • Pronounced • (FIGH-broyd tumor) • Defined • A benign, fribous tumor of the uterus

  42. Leiomyoma • Pronounced • (ligh-oh-my-OH-mah) • Defined • Benign, smooth muscle tumor of the uterus

  43. Ovarian Carcinoma • Pronounced • (oh-VAY-ree-an car-sin-OH-mah) • Defined • Malignant tumor of the ovaries, most commonly occurring in women in their 50s • Rarely detected in early stage

  44. Ovarian Cysts • Pronounced • (oh-VAY-ree-an SISTS) • Defined • Benign, globular sacs (cysts) that form on or near the ovaries • May be fluid filled or may contain semisolid materials

  45. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) • Pronounced • (PELL-vik in-FLAM-mah-toh-ree dih-ZEEZ) • Defined • Infection of the fallopian tubes • Salpingitis

  46. Stress Incontinence, Urinary • Pronounced • STRESS in-CON-tin-ens YOO-rih-nair-ee) • Defined • Inability to hold urine when the bladder is stressed by sneezing, coughing, laughing, or lifting

  47. Vaginitis • Pronounced • (vaj-in-EYE-tis) • Defined • Inflammation of the vagina and the vulva

  48. DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES, TREATMENTS AND PROCEDURES Female Reproductive System

  49. Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures • Aspiration biopsy • Invasive procedure in which a needle is inserted into an area of the body, such as the breast • Withdraws tissue or fluid sample for microscopic examination and diagnosis

  50. Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures • Breast self-examination • Procedure in which the woman examines her breasts and surrounding tissue for evidence of any changes that could indicate the possibility of malignancy