European Nations 1848-1900. FRANCE. The Second Republic of France emerged from the bitter political turmoil of the revolution of 1848 . The new government placed legislative authority in a National Assembly .
The Second Republic of France emerged from the bitter political turmoil of the revolution of 1848
The new government placed legislative authority in a National Assembly.
Executive authority was in a President, to be elected to a 4-year term by universal manhood suffrage.
A presidential election gave Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, an overwhelming victory.
He blamed the National Assembly for the misdeeds of the government and convinced the people that the republic was a failure.
On Dec 2, 1851, the anniversary of the coronation of Napoleon I, Louis Napoleon directed a coup d’etat -- later became Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.
Napoleon III’s first years were authoritarian since his rule rested on the illegal seizure of power.
His insecurity led to the strict control of the press and the limiting of other civil liberties. However, after a number of economic and foreign successes, he became more liberal.
Then he involved France in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Napoleon III was taken prisoner and France fell into turmoil again.
Dreyfus Affair: a Jewish Republican army captain was framed by monarchist army officers for treason. His unfair trial discredited the monarchist faction of the government. Dreyfus is finally cleared (1906)
Anti-Semitism rising in Europe (started heaviest in Russia, leading to movement to W Europe… then anti-Jewish feeling picks up there as well)
The British government generally moved toward greater democracy through a process of evolution rather than revolution.
Prosperity mitigated social conflict of 1830s and 1840s
Disraeli and Gladstone expand suffrage
Monarchs were under a constitution and no longer governed. They were ceremonial heads of state.
Executive power belonged to a cabinet led by the Prime Minister.
Legislative authority was held by Parliament, consisting of the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
Reform Act of 1832 increased total electorate from 400,000 to 800,000 by extending the franchise to almost all middle-class men.
(However, it left out industrial workers, artisans, and farmers.)
Reform Act of 1867 increased the electorate from roughly one million to two million, reducing most property qualifications to vote.
Alfred, Lord Tennyson summed up many 19th century British attitudes toward women in his poem, “The Princess”:
Man for the field and woman for the hearth:
Man for the sword and for the needle she:
Man with the head and woman with the heart:
Man to command and woman to obey.
In 1903 the WSPU (Women’s Social and Political Union) was founded to fight for women’s rights.
We're clearly soldiers in petticoatsAnd dauntless crusaders for woman's votesThough we adore men individuallyWe agree that as a group they're rather stupid!Cast off the shackles of yesterday!Shoulder to shoulder into the fray!Our daughters' daughters will adore usAnd they'll sign in grateful chorus"Well done, Sister Suffragette!"From Kensington to Billingsgate One hears the restless cries!From ev'ry corner of the land:"Womankind, arise!"Political equality and equal rights with men!Take heart! For Missus Pankhurst has been clapped in irons again!
Treated as a colony, the Irish were forced to observe English laws.
The Irish objected to the control of Irish land by British landowners.
When the British government failed to aid Ireland after the disastrous famine of the 1840s, Irish hatred of British rule intensified. Many Irish immigrated to the United States.
Irish nationalists demanded “home rule”. Ulster provinces in North don’t want it. Why? Protestant and property owners!
The people of Belgium gained their independence from the Dutch in 1830 and established a constitutional monarchy under Leopold I.
Norway and Sweden were united under one monarchy for most of the 1800s until Norway broke the union in 1905.
In 1907 it became the first sovereign state to give the vote to women. Sweden followed their example in 1909.
The Netherlands progressed toward democracy with their first constitution in 1849.
Switzerland used the principle of direct democracy in their 1874 constitution.
Denmark gained significant democratic reforms in the early 1900s.
Spain and Portugal, unlike the rest of the nations of western Europe, made little progress toward democracy.
William I (King of Prussia 1861-1888) had grandiose plans of a united Germany, but it was his prime minister,
Otto von Bismarck (1815-98), who was really responsible for the expansion of the Kingdom of Prussia into the German Empire.
With the support of Kaiser William I, Bismarck took charge of policy in the German Empire.
William II was a man of great energy and strong opinions. William II favored a powerful military. Because of William’s belief in a strong monarchy, he came into conflict with Bismarck. Bismarck wanted the Kaiser to stay out of political affairs.
Under William I, Bismarck was able to get his way by threatening to resign. But when Bismarck offered his resignation to William II in 1890, the Kaiser accepted it. William began his own personal rule of the German Empire.
During his reign, William II encouraged development in two key areas—the military and industry. He insisted that a strong army was the best support for royal authority.
By 1914, Germany had become one of the world’s major industrial powers