Thursday, September 15, 2011 Agenda • Bell Assignment • Notes: The Peloponnesian Wars and Greek Golden Age • Philosophers of Greece: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle TEST: Wednesday, September 22, 2011
Bell Assignment • Read the following speech by an Athenian leader, Pericles. After reading the speech, find three values. Please write the value and the quote. • Ex. Patriotism – “We alone regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs, not as harmless but as a useless character.”
Peloponnesian Wars and the Golden Age of Athens Ch. 5 Sections 3 and 4 9/15/2011
After the Persian Wars. . . . • After the Persian Wars, Greece was divided. • Many polises chose to side with the Delian League (Athens), while others sided with the Spartan Confederacy (Sparta). • Did it the division of Greece preserve peace or cause war?
Peloponnesian Wars • The Peloponnesian Wars were wars between Athens and Sparta. • Causes: • Sparta’s fear and paranoia of Athens’ dominance • Athens’ forceful tactics to control city states in Greece • Tension that has always existed between Athens and Sparta.
End Result of Peloponnesian Wars • Sparta defeats Athens. • Persia becomes an ally with Sparta. • Greece was left so weak from the war that the Greeks were easily conquered by Macedonia.
The Greek Golden Age • Despite war and political turmoil, Greece (specifically Athens) enjoyed a Golden Age. • One of Athens most notable leaders during the golden age was Pericles.
Pericles • The following are changes that Pericles made in Athens during the golden age: • He made Athenian democracy a direct democracy. Under Pericles, more Athenians participated in the assembly than any other time in Athens' history. • He organized the construction of the Parthenon.
Parthenon • The Parthenon was a temple built to show the power and wealth of Athens. It was dedicated to the goddess Athena. • Some scholars believe that it would cost over over 5 billion dollarstoday.
Philosophers of Greece • During the Peloponnesian Wars, philosophy gained popularity. Philosophers were teachers, who searched for truth. • There are three main Greek philosphers: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
Socrates • Socrates was a philosopher that lived during the Peloponnesian Wars. • He taught using a method known as the Socratic method. • Socratic Method – A series of questions are posed to truly understand the issue at hand. • Socrates was put on trial and executed for questioning the government and religion of Athens. He was also accused of corrupting the youth of Athens through his teachings.
Plato • Plato was a student of Socrates. He recorded all of the works of Socrates in a book known as The Republic. • Plato rejected democracy, because he believed democracy killed his teacher. • Plato believed that the government should regulate all aspects of a citizen’s life. He believed society should be ruled by a philosopher king.
Aristotle • Aristotle was a student of Plato. He also rejected democracy. (as well as, monarchy, oligarchy, and aristocracy) • He favored a government ruled by a strong, virtuous leader. • He believed that people should lead a good life by pursuing the golden mean, the moderate course between two extremes. (Not too strict but not too relaxed).