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Chapter 2

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  1. Chapter 2 Theory and Social Research

  2. What Is Social Theory? • Theory • Systematic • Well formulated • Empirically tested • Newspaper articles or television reports on social issues- unstated social theories 2

  3. What Is Social Theory? • Family are strongest when they have • Resources (income, education, housing, maturity, respect etc.) • And low stress (constant employment, happy marriage, good health, etc). • Blame Analysis • Not Theory 3

  4. What Is Social Theory? • Moral • Legal claim • Ideological • Intention • Society is facing a moral decay leading to divorce, women working outside the home • And loss of the “traditional family” 4

  5. The Parts of Theory • Concept • Symbol • Definition • Example: Height • Concept clusters • Classification concepts • Ideal type 5

  6. The Parts of Theory • Classifications • Ideal type • Scope • Assumptions • Relationships • Hypothesis • Proposition 6

  7. Example Box 2.1: Max Weber’s Ideal Type of Bureaucracy 7

  8. The Aspects of Theory • Direction of Theorizing • Deductive-- Deductive approach to theory • Example of the Deductive Approach • Inductive • Grounded theory • Example of Inductive Approach 8

  9. Figure 2.1: Deductive and Inductive Theorizing 9

  10. Expansion Box 2.1: What Is Grounded Theory? 10

  11. The Aspects of Theory • Range of Theory • Empirical generalization • Empirical Generalization Examples • Middle-range theory • Middle-Range Theory Examples • Theoretical frameworks 11

  12. Example Box 2.1: Levels of Theory in Three Studies • Theoretical Framework • Kalmijn; Ayers et al; Hein and Moore • Middle-Range Substantive Theory • Ayers et al; Hein and Moore • Empirical Generalization • Kalmijn; Ayers et al; Hein and Moore 12

  13. The Aspects of Theory • Levels of Theory • Micro-level theory • Macro-level theory • Meso-level theory • Forms of Explanation • Prediction and Explanation • Theoretical explanation 13

  14. The Aspects of Theory • Ordinary explanation • Causal Explanation • Temporal order • Association • Correlation • Eliminating alternatives • No spuriousness 14

  15. The Aspects of Theory • Structural Explanation • Network theories • Sequence theories • Sequential Theory Example • Functional theories • Functional Theory Example • Interpretive Explanation 15

  16. Expansion Box 2.2: Major Theoretical Frameworks- Sociology 16

  17. Expansion and Example Boxes 2.3 • Three Ways to Eliminate Alternative Causes in Causal Explanations • Design Controls • Control Variables • Logical Controls • Example of Network Theory 17

  18. Figure 2.2: Association of Income and Race 18

  19. The Three Major Approaches to Social Science • Positivist Approach • Replication; nomothetic. • Interpretive Approach • Idiographic; verstehen • Critical Approach • Praxis 19

  20. The Dynamic Duo • Theory frames how we look at and think about a topic • Theory has a place in virtually all research • Theory does not remain fixed over time 20