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Chapter 2 Principles of Design I. History of Floral Design A. Flower arranging is a work of art. We follow certain guidelines to properly arrange flowers so that they become a “work of art”. These guidelines are called principles of design. Basic laws

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i history of floral design
I. History of Floral Design
  • A. Flower arranging is a work of art.
we follow certain guidelines
We follow certain guidelines
  • to properly arrange flowers so that they become a “work of art”. These guidelines are called principles of design.
basic laws
Basic laws
  • fundamentals, truths or methods of operation that have been tested and proven for many centuries.
  • are judged by these principles.
  • Tools that will guide in planning and evaluating arrangements.
concepts of floral design
Concepts of floral design
  • Two concepts developed independently of each other.
  • Occidental Style – evolved in Egyptian and Middle Eastern Cultures
  • further developed by the Europeans
oriental style
Oriental Style
  • began in China
  • later explored by the Japanese
egyptian period
Egyptian Period
  • 2800-28BC
  • arranged separate rows of different colored flowers in shallow bowls
egyptian period10
Egyptian period
  • feast tables were often decorated with fruits and vegetables neatly piled in low baskets
egyptian period11
Egyptian Period
  • several flowers were considered sacred, symbolizing Egyptian Gods and Goddesses
  • Lotus and Water Lillies were placed in elaborate vases, bowls and jars
ancient greeks
Ancient Greeks
  • 600-146 BC
  • Did not arrange flowers in vases, scattered blossoms on tables and on the streets
ancient greeks13
Ancient Greeks
  • flowers were used to make garland and wreaths worn during special occasions.
  • Presented as awards to athletes, statesmen and soldiers.
ancient greeks14
Ancient Greeks
  • the cornucopia (horn or plenty) was filled with fruits and vegetables and placed in an upright position rather than on its side as done today
  • 28 BC - 325 AD
  • continued the customs of the Greeks
  • arrangements and usage became more elaborate
  • scatter roses on banquet tables and on the floor
  • scarves filled with blossoms were offered at an altar in Roman Religious Ceremonies
  • Wreaths and Garlands became more elaborate
byzantine period
Byzantine Period
  • 320-600 AD
  • arrangements of cut flowers used again
  • formal conical designs with clusters of blossoms at regular intervals
middle ages
Middle Ages
  • 476-1600 AD
  • very little is known about floral designs of this time period
  • 1400-1600 AD
  • beautifully documented in paintings
  • designs were large, tall, pyramidal, and symmetrically balanced
  • flower arrangements were loose, un-crowded and airy
  • formal bouquets featured the most important flower situated centrally, at the top of the bouquet, with other flower heads turned outward.
  • flowers were arranged so that they were about twice the height of the container
  • intense colors were used to create contrast with the white plastered walls of buildings
  • several traditional floral designs of today are styled after renaissance arrangements
baroque period
Baroque Period
  • began as symmetrical, oval shaped designs
  • asymmetrical curves in the shape of a crescent or an “s” were adopted later
  • an abundance of flower types and colors were used together
  • arrangements incorporated a variety of accessories such as figurines and butterflies
  • the “s” curve and crescent arrangements developed during this period are popular today
flemish style
  • 1600-1750 AD
  • beautifully captured by Dutch painters
  • traditional baroque styles were refined
flemish style28
Flemish style
  • refined - not as loose and open
  • better proportioned and more compact
  • Rich colors and an array of flowers were combined into masses, oval shape bouquets.
flemish style29
Flemish style
  • The French developed mass arrangements during the same time that were lighter and more airy than those of the Dutch.
  • Arrangements were made from delicate flowers in light pastel colors.
georgian period
Georgian period
  • 1714-1760 A.D.
  • Time period that spanned the reigns of the English kings George I and George II
  • Arrangements were greatly influenced by Chinese arts.
georgian period31
Georgian period
  • Usually symmetrical and triangularly shaped.
  • Many featured a single flower type.
  • Designs moved away from formality and symmetry in the late part of the period.
georgian period32
Georgian period
  • nosegay, or handheld bouquet became stylish
  • small nosegay bouquets placed in bowls were the first use of table centerpieces as we know them today.
georgian period33
Georgian period
  • Georgian art influenced the decorative arts in Colonial America.
  • Fan shaped and triangular arrangements were made and sometimes placed the center of interest near the rim of the container.
georgian period34
Georgian period
  • boxwood, ivy, and magnolia were used with garden flowers in the summer
  • berries, cones, greens with fruit were used during the winter along with dried flowers.
victorian period
Victorian period
  • 1820-1914 A.D.
  • Flowers were fashionable but designs were rather unappealing.
  • Improperly proportioned
victorian period36
Victorian period
  • large amounts of flowers cramped into a container to create a compact arrangement
  • usually asymmetrical with no focal point.
victorian period37
Victorian period
  • many different flower types and colors used, arrangements looked unplanned.
  • Rules for flower arranging were established toward the end of the Victorian period.
oriental style38
Oriental Style
  • Began in India where Buddist priests scattered branches and stem on altar or placed them in pottery urns.
  • Modified by the Chinese during the first century A.D.
oriental style39
Oriental Style
  • Arranged flowers in massive bronze vessels
  • Felt it was improper to place flowers carelessly on the altar.
  • Created symbolic arrangements
  • Bright colors were favored.
oriental style40
Oriental Style
  • Usually large and symmetrical with one or two types of foliage and flowers placed around a central branch.
  • Lightest colors were used at outer portions of design, darker ones kept nearest the base.
oriental style41
Oriental Style
  • Sixth Century A.D. Japanese adopted many aspects of the Chinese culture, including floral arrangement.
  • Japanese priest named Ikenabo refined the art.
oriental style42
Oriental Style
  • His instruction was sought by other Buddhist priests.
  • Began the first school of floral art in Japan which bears his name.
oriental style43
Oriental Style
  • Name later changed to Ikebana which means “giving life to the flowers.”
oriental style44
Oriental Style
  • Many schools of Japanese flower arrangements have evolved from this original one, the basic principles can be traced back to Ikenaba.
oriental style45
Oriental Style
  • Japanese designs are characterized by minimum use of plant material and careful placement of branches and flowers.
  • Each placement and angle has meaning.
oriental style46
Oriental Style
  • This type of arrangement became known as “line arrangement”
european style
European Style
  • generally large, round or oval mass of flowers
  • flower placement is not rigidly dictated as in oriental design
european style48
European Style
  • known as mass arrangements
  • most floral designs in the US are referred to as “line mass” and combine Oriental and European ideas
european style49
European Style
  • American floral design uses more materials than the Oriental but far fewer than the European
  • US floral design is often built around linear patterns, showing the Oriental influence.