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Agenda. What is Sharding Benefits of Sharding Alternatives of Sharding When to start Sharding. What Is Sharding. Wikipedia:

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Presentation Transcript
  • What is Sharding
  • Benefits of Sharding
  • Alternatives of Sharding
  • When to start Sharding
what is sharding
What Is Sharding
  • Wikipedia:
    • Horizontal partitioning is a database design principle whereby rows of a database table are held separately, rather than splitting by columns (which is what normalization and vertical partitioning do, to differing extents). Each partition forms part of a shard, which may in turn be located on a separate database server or physical location.
who uses sharding
Who Uses Sharding
  • Every big web site you can think of
  • FaceBook, Twitter, Flickr to name a few
benefits of sharding
Benefits Of Sharding
  • Sharding lets you:
    • Scale Out database
      • Increate number of concurrent transactions
    • Improve performance
      • Decrease latency
    • Make the database elastic
performance improvement
Performance Improvement
  • Size
    • Table size is reduced
    • Index size is reduced
    • More in memory – less disk access
  • Hits
    • Isolation is a pain
    • Less hits per database – less isolation
database isolation
Database Isolation
  • Database needs to maintain copies of the data per user, to ensure transaction boundaries
    • More users – more copies
    • Longer transactions – more copies
  • Indexes are stored on actual data
    • Copies are problematic
  • See here for complete explanation -
  • Sharding helps reduces # of transaction per database shard
alternatives for sharding
Alternatives For Sharding
  • Tuning
  • Scale Up
  • Read/Write Splitting
  • NoSQL
database tuning
Database Tuning
  • There are many ways to tune your database
  • Allot of data online, check out this post
database tuning some examples
Database Tuning – Some Examples
  • innodb_buffer_pool_size
    • Holds the data and indexes of tables in memory.
    • Bigger buffer results in faster row lookups.
    • The bigger the better.
    • Default – 8M
  • Query Cache
    • Keeps the result of queries in memory until they are invalidated by writes.
    • query_cache_size
      • total size of memory available to query caching
    • query_cache_limit
      • the maximum number of kilobytes one query may be in order to be cached.
    • query_cache_size= 128MB
    • query_cache_limit= 4MB
scaling up hardware
Scaling Up Hardware
  • Usually DB gets the strongest servers
  • However – there is a limit to how much performance gains you can get from increasing hardware
  • Some data:

  • Solid State Drive
    • Better latency and access time than regular HDD
    • Cost more per GB (but prices are dropping)
  • VadimTkachenko from Percona gave a great lecture on SSD at MySQL Conf2011
    • (see slides at
    • Claims you can expect up to X7 performance from SSD
read write splitting
Read/Write Splitting
  • Write to MySQL master, read from 1 (or more) slaves
  • Excellent read scaling
  • Many issues:
    • Since replication is a-synchronous – read might not be up to date
    • Transactions create stickiness
    • Code changes
  • A term used to designate databases which differ from classic relational databases in some way. These data stores may not require fixed table schemas, and usually avoid join operations and typically scale horizontally. Academics and papers typically refer to these databases as structured storage, a term which would include classic relational databases as a subset.

nosql types
NoSQL Types
  • Key/Value
    • A big hash table
    • Examples: Voldemort, Amazon Dynamo
  • Big Table
    • Big table, column families
    • Examples: Hbase, Cassandra
  • Document based
    • Collections of collections
    • Examples: CouchDB, MongoDB
  • Graph databases
    • Based on graph theory
    • Examples: Neo4J
  • Each solves a different problem
no sql

when to start sharding
When To Start Sharding
  • Database Size (including indexes) > available memory
    • When databases go to disk, bad things happen
  • Too many hits/second
  • High write/read ration
downsides of sharding
Downsides of Sharding
  • Start small, end big
  • TCO
    • Management
    • Backup
    • Time to market
benefits of scalebase
Benefits Of ScaleBase
  • Sharding – no hassle
  • No hidden costs
    • New features
    • Easy administration
thank you
Thank You
  • Join us at our next webinar, Scaling MySQL on EC2, on January 10th, 2012.