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Stem cells. By: The Avengers. History behind Stem cells. First Treatment: 2010, in Atlanta First Patient: patient suffering with paralysis after a spine injury was on trial for using stem cells from a vitro embryo.

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Stem cells


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    1. Stem cells By: The Avengers

    2. History behind Stem cells • First Treatment: 2010, in Atlanta • First Patient: patient suffering with paralysis after a spine injury was on trial for using stem cells from a vitro embryo. • First Treatment: the stem cells were injected directly into the site of the spinal injury. • In 2011, study was lunched to treat color blindness

    3. Properties of Stem Cells • Stem cells are able to produce cells that are used in the body. • Three properties of stem cells: • Capable of dividing and renewing themselves continually. • Are unspecialized, • Can give rise to specialized cells. • Ex: it can’t carry Oxygen like a red blood cell, but unspecialized cells can make specialized cells like red blood cells.

    4. Differentiation • The cell goes through several stages, becoming more specialized at every stage. • Scientists are beginning to understand, the signals inside and outside cells that trigger each step of the differentiation process.

    5. Internal and External Signals for Cell Differentiation • Internal signals: controlled by cell’s genes, interspersed on long strands of DNA, and carry coded instructions for all cellular structures, and functions. • External signals Include: • chemicals secreted by other cells • physical contact with neighboring cells • certain molecules in the microenvironment

    6. production of new cells by Stem cells

    7. Best Stem cells! • Embryonic stem cells: Totipotent, can give rise to any different cell types. • Ex, cell types ranging from muscle and nerve cells to simple skin cells and liver cells. • Adult stem cells: multipotent or pluripotent, have a limit to what they kind of cells they can divide into. • Ex, Hematopoietic stem cells found in red bone morrow and umbilical cord blood. Can only give rise to blood cells, therefore undifferentiated.

    8. Why Are embryonic and Adult stem cells Different? • In the embryo, no genes on the DNA have been turned on or off therefore, these cells can be altered in anyway to fit a specific need. • In Adult: the genes have already been altered in the DNA, therefore diversity of cell is greatly decreased. ( cell has been differentiated).

    9. Sources • http://www.medindia.net/news/dental-stem-cell-research-for-therapeutic-purposes-influenced-by-2-cell-transplantation-studies-101168-1.htm • http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1842174/insulinlike_signal_keeps_stem_cells_alive_in_adult_brain/ • http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/208954-overview • http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/991032-overview • http://www.aaas.org/spp/sfrl/projects/stem/report.pdf